Myths & Legends Saint George Dragon Slayer

Who is Saint George the Dragon Slayer & Why Does He Kill Dragons?

Did dragons once roam the Earth. And did they come in many sizes? Notice that most of the dragons illustrated below are about the same size of St. George or his horse or even a bit smaller. I get that they were violent and aggressive. But was that the entire species or just individual dragons?

In late 1996 I met a giant dragon in an underground military/extraterrestrial base on Johnston Atoll. I met and married my husband, Dr. Sasha Alex Lessin in the fall of 1997. Together we studied under Zecharia Sitchin. We were a part of a small group of about 200 people who worked with him closely at his seminars. Most of us are gone now, for we were an older group of scholars even back then. Now, as I write this, it’s 2021. Zecharia died in 2010 at the age of 90.

Dr. Lessin is an anthropologist with a Ph. D. from UCLA. He was invited by Zecharia to continue the research on our true origins and the Anunnaki. Together we’ve written and published 5 books. We have several more in the works.

This website and the forthcoming book are my efforts to connect the dragon, the Anunnaki and the royals who govern this planet. I’ve been working on my genealogy and I’m a direct ancestor of many Kings, Queens, Knights, Sirs, Ladies, Duchesses and Lords. My ancestors (many of them) came over in the 1600s and founded colonies in New England and Virginia. They fought in the Revolutionary War, Civil War, WWI & II and many other wars in between and all throughout the centuries. I’ve identified some ancestors as far as 20 generations back (thus far). When I plug in the royals, the line continues back. Sir Laurence Gardner took the royal bloodlines back through Jesus all the way to the Anunnaki Enki, Enlil, Nimah and father Anu himself.

Many royal crests have dragons. The various animals represent individuals and their houses. Is the Dragon the House of Anu? I’ve just begun the search for those answers. I’ve always loved dragons, so I believe they are the “good guys”, the “white hats”. Why did dragons get such a bad reputation? Were they all good or bad or are they as complicated as human beings?

House of Tudor
Saint-George-and-the-Dragon-Wikipedia

Saint George, The Dragon Slayer: The Legend Behind the Hero

https://www.ancient-origins.net/history-famous-people/exploring-famous-legend-st-george-and-dragon-005794

St. George is perhaps one of Christianity’s most famous saints, and is best-known as the patron saint of England. Apart from this well-known fact, St. George is also the patron saint of a number of other countries, including Portugal, Georgia, Lithuania, and Greece. The most popular tale regarding this saint is the one in which he slays a dragon. Thus, St. George is most commonly depicted as a knight mounted on a horse and in the process of spearing a dragon. This image has inspired many artists over the years, and has been portrayed on various coats of arms

St. George’s Early Life

St. George is believed to have lived during the latter part of the 3rd century AD and served as a soldier in the Roman army. Most sources agree that this saint was born in Cappadocia, an area which is located in modern day Turkey. The parents of St. George are said to have been Christians, and he inherited this faith from them. It has been claimed that after the death of St. George’s father, his mother returned to her hometown in Palestine, taking the saint with her. St. George then joined the Roman army, and eventually obtained the rank of Tribune.

Portrait of St. George by Hans von Kulmbach, circa 1510.
Portrait of St. George by Hans von Kulmbach, circa 1510. ( Public Domain )

St. George’s Protest

The persecution of Christians by the Emperor Diocletian at the beginning of the 4th century AD was objected to by St. George, who resigned from his military office as a sign of protest. When the emperor’s order against the Christians was torn up by St. George, Diocletian was furious. In an attempt to force St. George to renounce his Christian faith, he was imprisoned and tortured by the emperor’s men. The saint, however, refused to reject his faith. Seeing that their efforts were of no use, St. George’s jailers had him dragged through the streets of Diospolis (known also as Lydda) in Palestine and beheaded.

Saint George dragged through the streets of Diospolis, by Bernat Martorell, 15th century.

Saint George dragged through the streets of Diospolis, by Bernat Martorell, 15th century. ( Public Domain )

The story of St. George’s life would have been quite similar to that of his many contemporary martyrs, i.e. refusing to give up their Christian faith in the face of a persecuting pagan emperor, and paying for it with their lives, if it had not been for one particular tale.

It was St. George’s combat with a dragon that set him apart from most of his fellow martyrs. The best known form of this legend is said to be found in the Legenda Aurea (translated as ‘Golden Legend’), which was written during the 13th century by Jacobus de Voragine, an Italian chronicler and archbishop of Genoa.

Combat with a Dragon

In the account of the Legenda Aurea , St. George is said to have passed by a city called Silene, which is in the province of Libya. Beside this city was a pond, and in this pond lived a “dragon which envenomed all the country”. The people of the city decided to feed the beast with two sheep each day so that it would not harm them. When the dragon’s appetite was not satiated, the people of the city began sacrificing human beings to it,

“Then was an ordinance made in the town that there should be taken the children and young people of them of the town by lot, and every each one as it fell, were he gentle or poor, should be delivered when the lot fell on him or her.”

Saint George and the Dragon by Gustave Moreau, 1889/1890.
Saint George and the Dragon by Gustave Moreau, 1889/1890. ( Public Domain )

One day, the lot fell on the king’s daughter, who was prepared to be offered to the dragon. It was during this time that St. George passed by the city, and saw the princess. When he enquired as to what going on, St. George was told about the dragon, and he decided to slay the beast. The battle with the dragon, as described by de Voragine, is as follows:

“Thus as they spake together the dragon appeared and came running to them, and S. George was upon his horse, and drew out his sword and garnished him with the sign of the cross, and rode hardily against the dragon which came towards him, and smote him with his spear and hurt him sore and threw him to the ground. And after said to the maid: Deliver to me your girdle, and bind it about the neck of the dragon and be not afeard. When she had done so the dragon followed her as it had been a meek beast and debonair.”

St. George brought the dragon to Silene, converted the king and his people to the Christian faith, and then slayed the dragon.

St. George on Horseback, Meister des Döbelner Hochaltars, 1511/13, Hamburger Kunsthalle.
St. George on Horseback, Meister des Döbelner Hochaltars, 1511/13, Hamburger Kunsthalle. ( Public Domain )

It has been said that St. George’s military prowess made him popular amongst the knights of Medieval Europe, especially following the crusades. During the First Crusade, for example, an apparition of St. George is said to have aided the crusaders during their successful siege of Antioch in 1098.

Another popular myth was that the English king Richard the Lionheart saw a vision of St. George during his siege of Acre, which lasted from 1189 to 1191. The king then rebuilt a church in honor of the saint in Lydda, and adopted his emblem (a red cross on a white background) as England’s arms. This myth, however, was disproved during the 1990s.

Top image: St George the dragon slayer (rudall30 / Adobe Stock)

By Wu Mingren

Saint George and the Dragon

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other uses, see Saint George and the Dragon (disambiguation).

Saint George Killing the Dragon, woodcut by Albrecht Dürer (1501/4).

The legend of Saint George and the Dragon tells of Saint George (died 303) taming and slaying a dragon that demanded human sacrifices. The story goes that the dragon originally exhorted tribute from the villagers. When they ran out of livestock and trinkets for the dragon, they started giving up a human tribute once a year. This was acceptable to the villagers until a well-loved princess was chosen as the next offering, according to Spanish folklore. The saint thereupon rescues the princess chosen as the next offering. The narrative was first set in Cappadocia in the earliest sources of the 11th and 12th centuries, but transferred to Libya in the 13th-century Golden Legend.[1]

The narrative has pre-Christian origins (Jason and MedeaPerseus and AndromedaTyphon, etc.),[1] and is recorded in various saints’ lives prior to its attribution to St. George specifically. It was particularly attributed to Saint Theodore Tiro in the 9th and 10th centuries, and was first transferred to Saint George in the 11th century. The oldest known record of Saint George slaying a dragon is found in a Georgian text of the 11th century.[2][3]

The legend and iconography spread rapidly through the Byzantine cultural sphere in the 12th century. It reached Western Christian tradition still in the 12th century, via the crusades. The knights of the First Crusade believed that St. George, along with his fellow soldier-saints DemetriusMaurice and Theodore, had fought alongside them at Antioch and Jerusalem. The legend was popularised in Western tradition in the 13th century based on its Latin versions in the Speculum Historiale and the Golden Legend. At first limited to the courtly setting of Chivalric romance, the legend was popularised in the 13th century and became a favourite literary and pictorial subject in the Late Middle Ages and Renaissance, and it has become an integral part of the Christian traditions relating to Saint George in both Eastern and Western tradition.

Contents

Origins

Pre-Christian predecessors

Further information: ChaoskampfThracian horsemanSaint Theodore TiroTetri GiorgiVerethragnaZahhak, and Perseus and Andromeda

The iconography of military saints Theodore, George and Demetrius as horsemen is a direct continuation of the Roman-era “Thracian horseman” type iconography. The iconography of the dragon appears to grow out of the serpent entwining the “tree of life” on one hand, and with the draco standard used by late Roman cavalry on the other. Horsemen spearing serpents and boars are widely represented in Roman-era stelae commemorating cavalry soldiers. A carving from Krupac, Serbia, depicts Apollo and Asclepius as Thracian horsemen, shown besides the serpent entwined around the tree. Another stele shows the Dioscuri as Thracian horsemen on either side of the serpent-entwined tree, killing a boar with their spears.[4]

The development of the hagiographical narrative of the dragon-fight parallels the development of iconography. It draws from pre-Christian dragon myths. The Coptic version of the Saint George legend, edited by E. A. Wallis Budge in 1888, and estimated by Budge to be based on a source of the 5th or 6th century, names “governor Dadianus”, the persecutor of Saint George as “the dragon of the abyss”. Budge makes explicit the parallel to pre-Christian myth,

I doubt much of the whole story of Saint George is anything more than one of the many versions of the old-world story of the conflict between Light and Darkness, or Ra and Apepi, and Marduk and Tiamat, woven upon a few slender threads of historical fact. Tiamat, the scaly, winged, foul dragon, and Apepi the powerful enemy of the glorious Sungod, were both destroyed and made to perish in the fire which he sent against them and their fiends: and Dadianus, also called the ‘dragon’, with his friends the sixty-nine governors, was also destroyed by fire called down from heaven by the prayer of Saint George.[5] In anticipation of the Saint George iconography, first noted in the 1870s, a Coptic stone fenestrella shows a mounted hawk-headed figure fighting a crocodile, interpreted by the Louvre as Horus killing a metamorphosed Setekh.[6]

  • Thracian horseman with serpent-entwined tree (2nd century)
  • Funerary relief of a Roman cavalryman trampling a barbarian warrior (4th or 5th century)
  • Fenestrella interpreted by Louvre as Horus on horseback spearing Set in the shape of a crocodile (4th century).

Christianised iconography

Depictions of “Christ militant” trampling a serpent is found in Christian art of the late 5th century. Iconography of the horseman with spear overcoming evil becomes current in the early medieval period. Iconographic representations of St Theodore as dragon-slayer are dated to as early as the 7th century, certainly by the early 10th century (the oldest certain depiction of Theodore killing a dragon is at Aghtamar, dated c. 920).[7] Theodore is reported as having destroyed a dragon near Euchaita in a legend not younger than the late 9th century. Early depictions of a horseman killing a dragon are unlikely to represent St. George, who in the 10th century was depicted as killing a human figure, not a dragon.[8]Vinica ceramic icon of Saints Christopher and George as dragon-slayers

The earliest image of St Theodore as a horseman (named in Latin) is from Vinica, North Macedonia and, if genuine, dates to the 6th or 7th century. Here, Theodore is not slaying a dragon, but holding a draco standard. One of the Vinica icons also has the oldest representation of Saint George with a dragon: George stands besides a cynocephalous St. Christopher, both saints treading on snakes with human heads, and aiming at their heads with spears.[9] Maguire (1996) has connected the shift from unnamed equestrian heroes used in household magic to the more regulated iconography of named saints to the closer regulation of sacred imagery following the iconoclasm of the 730s.[4]17th-century drawing of the Arcus Einhardi

In the West, a Carolingian-era depiction of a Roman horseman trampling and piercing a dragon between two soldier saints with lances and shields was put on the foot of a crux gemmata, formerly in the Treasury of the Basilica of Saint Servatius in Maastricht (lost since the 18th c.). The representation survives in a 17th-century drawing, now in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France in Paris.The Yılanlı Kilise fresco of saints Theodore and George slaying the dragon

The “Christianisation” of the Thracian horseman iconography can be traced to the Cappadocian cave churches of Göreme, where frescoes of the 10th century show military saints on horseback confronting serpents with one, two or three heads. One of the earliest examples is from the church known as Mavrucan 3 (Güzelöz, Yeşilhisar [tr]), generally dated to the 10th century,[10] which portrays two “sacred riders” confronting two serpents twined around a tree, in a striking parallel to the Dioskuroi stela, except that the riders are now attacking the snake in the “tree of life” instead of a boar. In this example, at least, there appear to be two snakes with separate heads, but other examples of 10th-century Cappadocia show polycephalous snakes.[4] A poorly preserved wall-painting at the Yılanlı Kilise [tr] (“Snake Church”) that depicts the two saints Theodore and George attacking a dragon has been tentatively dated to the 10th century,[11] or alternatively even to the mid-9th.[12][need quotation to verify]

A similar example, but showing three equestrian saints, Demetrius, Theodore and George, is from the “Zoodochos Pigi” chapel in central Macedonia in Greece, in the prefecture of Kilkis, near the modern village of Kolchida, dated to the 9th or 10th century.[13]

A 12th-century depiction of the mounted dragon-slayer, presumably depicting Theodore, not George, is found in four muqarna panels in the nave of the Cappella Palatina in Palermo.[7]

Transfer to Saint George

Saints Theodore and George shown side by side as equestrian heroes. Theodore kills a dragon and George a human enemy. Saint Catherine’s Monastery, Sinai, 9th or 10th century

The dragon motif was transferred to the George legend from that of his fellow soldier saintSaint Theodore Tiro.[14]

The transfer of the dragon iconography from Theodore, or Theodore and George as “Dioskuroi” to George on his own, first becomes tangible in the early 11th century.[citation needed] The oldest certain images of St. George combatting the serpent are still found in Cappadocia.

Golden Legend[edit]

In the well-known version from Jacobus da Varagine‘s Legenda aurea (The Golden Legend, 1260s), the narrative episode of Saint George and the Dragon took place somewhere he called “Silene”, in Libya.[15][16]

Silene in Libya was plagued by a venom-spewing dragon dwelling in a nearby pond, poisoning the countryside. To prevent it from affecting the city itself, the people offered it two sheep daily, then a man and a sheep, and finally their children and youths, chosen by lottery. One time the lot fell on the king’s daughter. The king offered all his gold and silver to have his daughter spared, but the people refused. The daughter was sent out to the lake, dressed as a bride, to be fed to the dragon.

Saint George by chance arrived at the spot. The princess tried to send him away, but he vowed to remain. The dragon emerged from the pond while they were conversing. Saint George made the Sign of the Cross and charged it on horseback, seriously wounding it with his lance.[a] He then called to the princess to throw him her girdle (zona), and he put it around the dragon’s neck. When she did so, the dragon followed the girl like a “meek beast” on a leash.[b]

The princess and Saint George led the dragon back to the city of Silene, where it terrified the populace. Saint George offered to kill the dragon if they consented to become Christians and be baptized. Fifteen thousand men including the king of Silene converted to Christianity.[c] George then killed the dragon, beheading it with his sword, and the body was carted out of the city on four ox-carts. The king built a church to the Blessed Virgin Mary and Saint George on the site where the dragon died and a spring flowed from its altar with water that cured all disease.[17] Only the Latin version involves the saint striking the dragon with the spear, before killing it with the sword.[18]

The Golden Legend narrative is the main source of the story of Saint George and the Dragon as received in Western Europe, and is therefore relevant for Saint George as patron saint of England. The princess remains unnamed in the Golden Legend version, and the name “Sabra” is supplied by Elizabethan era writer Richard Johnson in his Seven Champions of Christendom (1596). In the work, she is recast as a princess of Egypt.[19][20] This work takes great liberties with the material, and makes St. George marry Sabra,[d] and have English children, one of whom becomes Guy of Warwick.[21] Alternative names given to the princess in Italian sources still of the 13th century are Cleolinda and Aia.[22]

Iconography[edit]

Further information: Thracian horsemanUastyrdzhi, and Tetri Giorgi

Medieval iconography[edit]

Saints George and Theodore on horseback killing the dragon, fresco in Saint Barbara church in GöremeCappadocia. Dated to the early 11th century, this image has been identified as the oldest known depiction of Saint George as dragon-slayer.[23]

Eastern[edit]

The saint is depicted in the style of a Roman cavalryman in the tradition of the “Thracian Heros.” There are two main iconographic types, the “concise” form showing only George and the dragon, and the “detailed” form also including the princess and the city walls or towers of Lacia (Lasia) with spectators witnessing the miracle. The “concise” type originates in Cappadocia, in the 10th to 11th century (transferred from the same iconography associated with Saint Theodore of Tiro in the 9th to 10th century). The earliest certain example of the “detailed” form may be a fresco from Pavnisi (dated c. 1160), although the examples from AdishiBochorma and Ikvi may be slightly earlier.[24]Georgian

Greek

  • Byzantine bas-relief of Saint George and the Dragon (steatite), 12th century
  • Monumental vita icon at Sinai, first half of the 13th century, likely by a Greek artist. The dragon episode is shown in one of twenty panels depicting the saint’s life.
  • Greek icon of St George with the youth of Mytilene, 15th century, PyrgosSantorini.
  • Icon by Angelos Akotandos, Crete (first half of the 15th century)
  • “Pedestrian” St George, Crete, second half of the 15th century
  • Michael Damaskinos (16th century), Saint George killing the dragon, alongside Saint Mercurius killing Julian.

Russian

The oldest example in Russia found on walls of the church of St George in Staraya Ladoga, dated c. 1167. In Russian tradition, the icon is known as Чудо Георгия о змие; i.e., “the miracle of George and the dragon.” The saint is mostly shown on a white horse, facing right, but sometimes also on a black horse, or facing left.[25] [26] The princess is usually not included. Another motif shows George on horseback with the youth of Mytilene sitting behind him.

  • The Staraya Ladoga fresco, c. 1167
  • 14th-century icon from Novgorod
  • 14th-century icon from Rostov
  • Novgorod vita icon, 14th century; the “detailed” dragon iconography takes the central panel.
  • Russian icon of the “detailed” type, Moscow, early 15th century
  • Novgorod icon, late 15th century
  • Northern Russian icon of the “detailed” type, the saint is exceptionally slaying the dragon with his sword (c. 1500).
  • Chełm school, 16th century

Western[edit]

The motif of Saint George as a knight on horseback slaying the dragon first appears in western art in the second half of the 13th century. The tradition of the saint’s arms being shown as the red-on-white St. George’s Cross develops in the 14th century.

Renaissance[edit]

Early modern and modern art[edit]

Paintings

Sculptures

Mosaic

Engravings

Prints

Literary adaptations[edit]

Edmund Spenser expands on the Saint George and the Dragon story in Book I of the Fairy Queen, initially referring to the hero as the Redcross KnightWilliam Shakespeare refers to Saint George and the Dragon in Richard III ( Advance our standards, set upon our foes Our ancient world of courage fair St. George Inspire us with the spleen of fiery dragons act V, sc. 3), Henry V ( The game’s afoot: follow your spirit, and upon this charge cry ‘God for Harry, England, and Saint George!’ act III, sc. 1), and also in King Lear (act I).

A 17th-century broadside ballad paid homage to the feat of George’s dragon slaying. Titled “St. George and the Dragon”, the ballad considers the importance of Saint George in relation to other heroes of epic and Romance, ultimately concluding that all other heroes and figures of epic or romance pale in comparison to the feats of George.[36]

The Banner of St George by Edward Elgar is a ballad for chorus and orchestra, words by Shapcott Wensley (1879). The 1898 Dream Days by Kenneth Grahame includes a chapter entitled The Reluctant Dragon, in which an elderly Saint George and a benign dragon stage a mock battle to satisfy the townsfolk and get the dragon introduced into society. Later made into a film by Walt Disney Productions, and set to music by John Rutter as a children’s operetta.

In 1935 Stanley Holloway recorded a humorous retelling of the tale as St. George and the Dragon written by Weston and Lee. In the 1950s, Stan Freberg and Daws Butler wrote and performed St. George and the Dragon-Net (a spoof of the tale and of Dragnet) for Freberg’s radio show. The story’s recording became the first comedy album to sell over a million copies.

Margaret Hodges retold the legend in a 1984 children’s book (Saint George and the Dragon) with Caldecott Medal-winning illustrations by Trina Schart Hyman.

Samantha Shannon describes her 2019 novel The Priory of the Orange Tree as a “feminist retelling” of Saint George and the Dragon.[37]

Heraldry and vexillology[edit]

Coats of arms[edit]

Reggio Calabria used Saint George and the dragon in its coat of arms since at least 1757, derived from earlier (15th-century) iconography used on the city seal. Saint George and the dragon has been depicted in the coat of arms of Moscow since the late 18th century, and in the coat of arms of Georgia since 1991 (based on a coat of arms introduced in 1801 for Georgia within the Russian Empire).

The royal arms of Aragon from the Inventory of King Martin (c.1400)[38]Provincial coats of arms

Municipal coats of arms

Flags[edit]

Military insignia[edit]

See also[edit]

Explanatory notes[edit]

  1. ^ Caxton gives “with his spear”, but Latin text gives lanceam fortiter vibrans.
  2. ^ Caxton gives “meek beast,” but Latin text gives “mansuetissima canis (tamest dog)”.
  3. ^ Latin text gives XX thousand.
  4. ^ St. George is supposed to have been martyred as a virgin according to his hagiography.

References[edit]

Citations

  1. Jump up to:a b St. George and the Dragon: Introduction in: E. Gordon Whatley, Anne B. Thompson, Robert K. Upchurch (eds.), Saints’ Lives in Middle Spanish Collections (2004).
  2. ^ Privalova, E. L. (1977). Pavnisi (in Russian). Tbilisi: Metsniereba. p. 73.
  3. ^ Tuite, Kevin. “The Old Georgian version of the miracle of St George, the princess and the dragon: Text, commentary and translation” (PDF). Université de Montréal, Département d’anthropologie. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  4. Jump up to:a b c Paul Stephenson, The Serpent Column: A Cultural Biography, Oxford University Press (2016), 179–182.
  5. ^ E. A. Wallis BudgeThe Martyrdom and Miracles of Saint George of Cappadocia (1888), xxxi–xxxiii206223. Budge (1930), 33-44 also likens George against Dadianus to Horos against Set or Ra against Apep. See also Joseph Eddy Fontenrose, Python: A Study of Delphic Myth and Its Origins(1959), p. 518 (fn 8).
  6. ^ Charles Clermont-Ganneau, “Horus et Saint Georges, d’après un bas-relief inédit du Louvre”. Revue archéologique, 1876.“Horus on horseback | Louvre Museum | Paris”www.louvre.fr..
  7. Jump up to:a b Johns (2017) p. 170f. Jeremy Johns, “Muslim Artists, Christian Patrons and the Painted Ceilings of the Cappella Palatina (Palermo, Sicily, circa 1143 CE)”, Hadiith ad-Dar 40(2016), p. 15.
  8. ^ Walter (1995), p. 320.
  9. ^ Jan Bazant, “St. George at Prague Castle and Perseus: an Impossible Encounter?”, Studia Hercynia 19.1-2 (2015), 189-201 (fig. 4).
  10. ^ “Thierry 1972, who dates the fresco to as early as the seventh century. However, this seems unlikely, as it would be three hundred years earlier than any other church fresco in the region.” Stephenson (2016), 180 (fn 89). see also: Walter (2003), pp. 56, 125, plate 27.
  11. ^ Johns (2017) p. 170 “the pairing of the two holy dragon-slayers has no narrative source, and the symbolic meaning of the scene is spelled out in an inscription written on both sides of the central cross, which compares the victory of the two saints over the dragon to Christ’s triumph over evil on the cross.”
  12. ^ Walter (2003), p. 128.
  13. ^ Melina Paissidou, “Warrior Saints as Protectors of the Byzantine Army in the Palaiologan Period: the Case of the Rock-cut Hermitage in Kolchida (Kilkis Prefecture)”, in: Ivanka Gergova Emmanuel Moutafov (eds.), ГЕРОИ • КУЛТОВЕ • СВЕТЦИ / Heroes Cults Saints Sofija (2015), 181-198.
  14. ^ Robertson, Duncan (1998), The Medieval Saints’ Lives, pp. 51 f.
  15. ^ Jacobus (de Voragine) (1890), Graesse, Theodor (ed.), “Cap. LVIII. De sancto Georgio”Legenda aurea: vulgo Historia lombardica dicta, pp. 260–264
  16. ^ Jacobus (de Voragine) (1900), Caxton, William (tr.) (ed.), “Here followeth the Life of S. George Martyr”The Golden Legend: Or, Lives of the Saints, Dent, 3, p. 126
  17. ^ Thus Jacobus de Voragine, in William Caxton’s translation (On-line text).
  18. ^ Johns, Jeremy (2017), Bacile, Rosa (ed.), “Muslim Artists and Christian Moels in the Painted Ceilings of the Cappella Palatina”Romanesque and the Mediterranean, Routledge, ISBN 9781351191050, note 96
  19. ^ Chambers, Edmund Kerchever, ed. (1878), The Mediaeval Stage: book I. Minstrelsy. book II. Folk drama, Halle: M. Niemeyer, p. 221, note 2
  20. ^ Graf, Arturo, ed. (1878), Auberon (I complementi della Chanson d’Huon de Bordeaux I), Archivio per lo studio delle tradizioni popolari (10) (in Italian), Halle: M. Niemeyer, p. 261
  21. ^ Richmond, Velma Bourgeois (1996), The Legend of Guy of Warwick, New York: Garland, p. 221, note 2, ISBN 9780815320852
  22. ^ Runcini, Romolo (1999), Metamorfosi del fantastico: luoghi e figure nella letteratura, nel cinema, massmedia (in Italian), Lithos, p. 184, note 13, ISBN 9788886584364
  23. ^ Jonathan David Arthur Good, Saint George for England: Sanctity and National Identity, 1272-1509 (2004), p. 102.
  24. ^ Walter (2003:142).
  25. ^ notably the icon known as “Black George”, showing the saint both on a black horse and facing left, made in Novgorod in the first half of the 15th century (BM 1986,0603.1)
  26. ^ “a few 14th–16th century Novgorod icons such as the ‘Miracle of St George’, a mid-14th-century icon from the Morozov collection and now in the Tretiakov Gallery, Moscow (Bruk and Iovleva 1995, no. 21), ‘St George, Nikita and the Deesis’, a 16th-century icon in the Russian Museum, St Petersburg, (Likhachov, Laurina and Pushkariov 1980, fig. 237) and on some Northern Russian icons, for instance, the ‘Miracle of St George and his Life’ from Ustjuznan and dating from the first half of the 16th century (Rybakov 1995, fig. 214)” British Museum Russian Icon “The Miracle of St George and the Dragon / Black George”.
  27. ^ [1] Archived February 1, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  28. ^ Nordisk familjebok. 1914.
  29. ^ [2] Archived September 8, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  30. ^ Burne-Jones, Sir Edward. “St. George and the Dragon”. Olga’s Gallery. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
  31. ^ Giorgio de Chirico. St. George Killing the Dragon – Giorgio de Chirico. Wikiart.com”. Wikiart.org. Retrieved 2021-02-17.
  32. ^ The Liberty Clock waymarking.com.
  33. ^ “Forecourt Statues of The State Library of Victoria”THE GARGAREANWordPress.com. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
  34. ^ “The Royal Fleet of Limousines”The Chauffeur. 6 October 2005. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  35. ^ “Withdrawn Banknotes: Reference Guide” (PDF). Bank of England. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
  36. ^ “New Ballad of St. George and the Dragon (EBBA 34079)”English Broadside Ballad Archive. National Library of Scotland – Crawford 1349: University of California at Santa Barbara, Department of English. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
  37. ^ “Shelfie with Samantha Shannon”. YouTube. 2019-02-26. Retrieved 2021-02-17.
  38. ^ Domènech i Montaner, Lluís (1995) Ensenyes nacionals de Catalunya. Barcelona : Generalitat de Catalunya. ISBN 84-393-3575-X.

Sources

Bibliography

External links[edit]

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In cultureSaint George and the DragonSt George’s CrossDevotions, traditions and prayers Patronagesin Georgiain OssetiaSaint George’s Day in Englandin SpainGeorge’s Day in SpringGeorge’s Day in Autumnin Palestine
See alsoLocales named after St GeorgeSt. George’s UniversitySt. George’s College (disambiguation)St. George’s School (disambiguation)St George’s Church (disambiguation)St. George’s Cathedral (disambiguation)St George’s Hospital (disambiguation)George, Martyr of Córdoba
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