Anunnaki Enki Ninhursag Ninmah

ENKI & NINMAH ~ The Competition

VERSION 1

Enki and Ninmah

The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature

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In those days, in the days when heaven and earth were created; in those nights, in the nights when heaven and earth were created; in those years, in the years when the fates were determined; when the Anunna gods were born; when the goddesses were taken in marriage; when the goddesses were distributed in heaven and earth; when the goddesses …… became pregnant and gave birth; when the gods were obliged (?) …… their food …… for their meals; the senior gods oversaw the work, while the minor gods were bearing the toil. The gods were digging the canals and piling up the silt in Harali. The gods, dredging the clay, began complaining about this life.

At that time, the one of great wisdom, the creator of all the senior gods, Enki lay on his bed, not waking up from his sleep, in the deep engur, in the flowing water, the place the inside of which no other god knows. The gods said, weeping: “He is the cause of the lamenting!” Namma (Nammu), the primeval mother who gave birth to the senior gods, took the tears of the gods to the one who lay sleeping, to the one who did not wake up from his bed, to her son: “Are you really lying there asleep, and …… not awake? The gods, your creatures, are smashing their ……. My son, wake up from your bed! Please apply the skill deriving from your wisdom and create a substitute (?) for the gods so that they can be freed from their toil!”

At the word of his mother Namma, Enki rose up from his bed. In Hal-an-kug, his room for pondering, he slapped his thigh in annoyance. The wise and intelligent one, the prudent, …… of skills, the fashioner of the design of everything brought to life birth-goddesses (?). Enki reached out his arm over them and turned his attention to them. And after Enki, the fashioner of designs by himself, had pondered the matter, he said to his mother Namma: “My mother, the creature you planned will really come into existence. Impose on him the work of carrying baskets. You should knead clay from the top of the Abzu; the birth-goddesses (?) will nip off the clay and you shall bring the form into existence. Let Ninmah act as your assistant; and let Ninimma, Cu-zi-ana, Ninmada, Ninbarag, Ninmug, …… and Ninguna stand by as you give birth. My mother, after you have decreed his fate, let Ninmah impose on him the work of carrying baskets.”

6 lines fragmentary

Enki …… brought joy to their heart. He set a feast for his mother Namma and for Ninmah. All the princely birth-goddesses (?) …… ate delicate reed (?) and bread. An, Enlil, and the lord Nudimmud roasted holy kids. All the senior gods praised him: “O lord of wide understanding, who is as wise as you? Enki, the great lord, who can equal your actions? Like a corporeal father, you are the one who has the me of deciding destinies, in fact you are the me.”

Enki and Ninmah drank beer, their hearts became elated, and then Ninmah said to Enki: “Man’s body can be either good or bad and whether I make a fate good or bad depends on my will.”

Enki answered Ninmah: “I will counterbalance whatever fate — good or bad — you happen to decide.” Ninmah took clay from the top of the abzu in her hand and she fashioned from it first a man who could not bend his outstretched weak hands. Enki looked at the man who could not bend his outstretched weak hands, and decreed his fate: he appointed him as a servant of the king.

Second, she fashioned one who turned back (?) the light, a man with constantly opened eyes (?). Enki looked at the one who turned back (?) the light, the man with constantly opened eyes (?), and decreed his fate allotting to it the musical arts, making him as the chief …… in the king’s presence.

Third, she fashioned one with both feet broken, one with paralysed feet. Enki looked at the one with both feet broken, the one with paralysed feet and …… him for the work of …… and the silversmith and ……. ( 1 ms. has instead: She fashioned one, a third one, born as an idiot. Enki looked at this one, the one born as an idiot, and decreed his fate: he appointed him as a servant of the king.)

Fourth, she fashioned one who could not hold back his urine. Enki looked at the one who could not hold back his urine and bathed him in enchanted water and drove out the Namtar demon from his body.

Fifth, she fashioned a woman who could not give birth. Enki looked at the woman who could not give birth, and decreed her fate: he made (?) her belong to the queen’s household. ( 1 ms. has instead: …… as a weaver, fashioned her to belong to the queen’s household.)

Sixth, she fashioned one with neither penis nor vagina on its body. Enki looked at the one with neither penis nor vagina on its body and give it the name ” Nibru eunuch (?)”, and decreed as its fate to stand before the king.

Ninmah threw the pinched-off clay from her hand on the ground and a great silence fell. The great lord Enki said to Ninmah: “I have decreed the fates of your creatures and given them their daily bread. Come, now I will fashion somebody for you, and you must decree the fate of the newborn one!”

Enki devised a shape with head, …… and mouth in its middle, and said to Ninmah: “Pour ejaculated semen into a woman’s womb, and the woman will give birth to the semen of her womb.” Ninmah stood by for the newborn ……. and the woman brought forth …… in the midst ……. In return (?), this was Umul: its head was afflicted, its place of …… was afflicted, its eyes were afflicted, its neck was afflicted. It could hardly breathe, its ribs were shaky, its lungs were afflicted, its heart was afflicted, its bowels were afflicted. With its hand and its lolling head it could not put bread into its mouth; its spine and head were dislocated. The weak hips and the shaky feet could not carry (?) it on the field — Enki fashioned it in this way.

Enki said to Ninmah: “For your creatures I have decreed a fate, I have given them their daily bread. Now, you should decree a fate for my creature, give him his daily bread too.” Ninmah looked at Umul and turned to him. She went nearer to Umul asked him questions but he could not speak. She offered him bread to eat but he could not reach out for it. He could not lie on ……., he could not ……. Standing up he could not sit down, could not lie down, he could not …… a house, he could not eat bread. Ninmah answered Enki: “The man you have fashioned is neither alive nor dead. He cannot support himself (?).”

Enki answered Ninmah: “I decreed a fate for the first man with the weak hands, I gave him bread. I decreed a fate for the man who turned back (?) the light, I gave him bread. I decreed a fate for the man with broken, paralysed feet, I gave him bread. I decreed a fate for the man who could not hold back his urine, I gave him bread. I decreed a fate for the woman who could not give birth, I gave her bread. I decreed the fate for the one with neither penis nor vagina on its body, I gave it bread. My sister, …….” 2 lines fragmentary

Ninmah answered Enki:

9 lines fragmentary

( Ninmah’s answer continues) “You (?) entered ……. Look, you do not dwell in heaven, you do not dwell on earth, you do not come out to look at the Land. Where you do not dwell but where my house is built, your words cannot be heard. Where you do not live but where my city is built, I myself am silenced (?). My city is ruined, my house is destroyed, my child has been taken captive. I am a fugitive who has had to leave the E-kur, even I myself could not escape from your hand.”

Enki replied to Ninmah: “Who could change the words that left your mouth? Remove Umul from your lap ……. Ninmah, may your work be ……, you …… for me what is imperfect; who can oppose (?) this? The man whom I shaped …… after you ……, let him pray! Today let my penis be praised, may your wisdom be confirmed (?)! May the Enkum and Ninkum …… proclaim your glory ……. My sister, the heroic strength ……. The song …… the writing (?) ……. The gods who heard …… let Umul build (?) my house …….”

Ninmah could not rival the great lord Enki. Father Enki, your praise is sweet!

VERSION 2

Enki and Ninmah (Ninhursag)

http://www.mesopotamiangods.com/enki-and-ninmah/

Source: Black, J.A., Cunningham, G., Robson, E., and Zólyomi, G.,

The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature, Oxford 1998-.

(Texts: All Artifacts, Color Coding, & Writings in Bold Type With Italics Inside Parenthesis, are Added by Editor R. Brown, not the Authors, Translators, or Publishers!)

(gods in blue)

(mixed-breed creation Umul)

1-11 In those days, in the days when heaven and earth were created;

in those nights, in the nights when heaven and earth were created;

in those years, in the years when the fates were determined;

when the Anuna (Anunnakigods were born; when the goddesses were taken in marriage;

when the goddesses were distributed in heaven and earth;

when the goddesses …… became pregnant and gave birth;

when the gods were obliged (?) (to work for) …… their food …… for their meals;

7a - when the gods did the work before man

       (a period prior mankind, when the alien gods did the work of survival, & total colonization of the Earth)

          the senior (royal descendant) gods oversaw the work, while the minor gods were bearing the toil.

The gods were digging the canals and piling up the silt in Harali.

The gods, dredging the clay, began complaining about this life.

12-23 At that time, the one of great wisdom, the creator of all the senior gods,

Enki lay on his bed, not waking up from his sleep, in the deep engur,

 (Enki‘s residence in EriduEnki in the Abzu marshes)

          in the flowing water, the place the inside of which no other god knows.

The gods said, weeping: “He is the cause of the lamenting!”

Namma (Nammu, Ninhursag‘s & Enki‘s mother)the primeval mother who gave birth to the senior gods,

took the tears of the gods to the one who lay sleeping, to the one who did not wake up from his bed, to her son:

“Are you really lying there asleep, and …… not awake?

The gods, your creatures, are smashing their …….

My son, wake up from your bed!

Please apply the skill deriving from your wisdom and

  (Enki & family decide to fashion workers for the gods)

create a substitute (?) for the gods so that they can be freed from their toil!

24-37 At the word of his mother NammaEnki rose up from his bed.

In Hal-an-kug, his room for pondering, he slapped his thigh in annoyance.

The wise and intelligent one, the prudent, …… of skills,

the fashioner of the design of everything brought to life birth-goddesses (?).

Enki reached out his arm over them and turned his attention to them.

 (Enki, alien King Anu‘s eldest & wisest son, 1st to arrive on Earth Colony with his crew of 50)

And after Enki, the fashioner of designs by himself, had pondered the matter, he said to his mother Namma:

 (Enki discovers Homo erectus for the fashioning of replacement workers)

“My mother, the creature you planned will really come into existence.

2a - Nisaba, master scribe, grain goddess
3bb - Haia, unknown god, Enlil, & Nisaba

   (Enlil‘s mother-in-law Nisaba working the grains of the fields; giant gods farming on Earth)

Impose on him the work of carrying baskets.

You should knead clay from the top of the abzu;

 (Ninhusrag & brother Enki in their DNA lab, Ninhursag‘s unbilical chord cutter symbol in their hands, winged sky-disc symbol of planet Nibiru above, King Anu, their father, keeping in contact with events on Earth Colony)

the birth-goddesses (?) will nip off the clay and you shall bring the form into existence.

Let Ninmah (Ninhursagact as your assistant;

 (Ninhursag & her nurse helpers)

and let NinimmaCu-zi-anaNinmadaNinbaragNinmug, …… and Ninguna stand by as you give birth.

My mother, after you have decreed his fate, let Ninmah impose on him the work of carrying baskets.”

6 lines fragmentary

44-51 Enki …… brought joy to their heart.

He set a feast for his mother Namma and for Ninmah (Ninhursag).

All the princely birth-goddesses (?) …… ate delicate reed (?) and bread.

6 - Anu above, Enlil, & Enki

     (Apkulla / pilot,   Enki, King Anu in his winged sky-discEnlil, & Apkulla / winged eagle-headed pilot)

AnEnlil, and the lord Nudimmud (Enkiroasted holy kids.

All the senior gods praised him: “O lord of wide understanding, who is as wise as you?

 (Enki, eldest son to King Anu, sent to Earth to mine for gold, etc.)

Enki, the great lord, who can equal your actions?

Like a corporeal father, you are the one who has the me of deciding destinies,

in fact you are the me (alien technologies on discs, a How To Do…).”

52-55 Enki and Ninmah (Enki‘s ½ sister, Ninhursagdrank beer,

their hearts became elated, and then Ninmah said to Enki:

“Man’s body can be either good or bad and whether I make a fate good or bad depends on my will.”

 (lab work of Ninhursag & Enki)

56-61 Enki answered Ninmah:

“I will counterbalance whatever fate — good or bad — you happen to decide.”

Ninmah took clay from the top of the abzu in her hand

  (Ninhursag with her early failed attempts to fashion replacement workers for the aliens)

and she fashioned from it first a man who could not bend his outstretched weak hands.

Enki looked at the man who could not bend his outstretched weak hands,

and decreed his fate: he appointed him as a servant of the king.

 (50,000 years of failed experiments fashioning workers)

62-65 Second, she fashioned one who turned back (?) the light, a man with constantly opened eyes (?).

Enki looked at the one who turned back (?) the light, the man with constantly opened eyes (?),

and decreed his fate allotting to it the musical arts, making him as the chief …… in the king’s presence.

 (early DNA mixing failed to produce adequate workers)

66-68 Third, she fashioned one with both feet broken, one with paralyzed feet.

Enki looked at the one with both feet broken, the one with paralyzed feet and ……

him for the work of …… and the silversmith and …….

( 1 ms. has instead: She fashioned one, a third one, born as an idiot.

Enki looked at this one, the one born as an idiot,

and decreed his fate: he appointed him as a servant of the king.)

2a - Anunnaki experiment to make workers

   (Homo erectus decided the best creature to mix DNA & fashion into their image & likeness)

69-71 Fourth, she fashioned one who could not hold back his urine.

Enki looked at the one who could not hold back his urine

and bathed him in enchanted water and drove out the namtar demon from his body.

72-74 Fifth, she fashioned a woman who could not give birth.

Enki looked at the woman who could not give birth, and decreed her fate:

he made (?) her belong to the queen’s household.

( 1 ms. has instead: …… as a weaver, fashioned her to belong to the queen’s household.)

  (taking 50,000 years to figure out the right DNA ad-mix)

75-78 Sixth, she fashioned one with neither penis nor vagina on its body.

Enki looked at the one with neither penis nor vagina on its body

and give it the name “Nibru eunuch (?)”, and decreed as its fate to stand before the king.

79-82 Ninmah threw the pinched-off clay from her hand on the ground and a great silence fell.

  (Ninhursag, father King Anu & 2 others in his winged sky-disc above Tree of Life, & Enki)

The great lord Enki said to Ninmah:

“I have decreed the fates of your creatures and given them their daily bread.

Come, now I will fashion somebody for you, and you must decree the fate of the newborn one!”

83-91 Enki devised a shape with head, …… and mouth in its middle, and said to Ninmah:

“Pour ejaculated semen into a woman’s womb, and the woman will give birth to the semen of her womb.”

3b - Ninhursag & Enki in the lab

        (Ninhursag & brother Enki working in their DNA lab, & a clay vessel)

Ninmah stood by for the newborn ……. and the woman brought forth …… in the midst …….

In return (?), this was Umul:

its head was afflicted, its place of …… was afflicted, its eyes were afflicted, its neck was afflicted.

  (Ninhursag with her umbilical chord cutter symbols, omega, mathematics, & ohm symbols today)

It could hardly breathe, its ribs were shaky,

its lungs were afflicted, its heart was afflicted, its bowels were afflicted.

With its hand and its lolling head it could not put bread into its mouth; its spine and head were dislocated.

The weak hips and the shaky feet could not carry (?) it on the field — Enki fashioned it in this way.

92-101 Enki said to Ninmah:

“For your creatures I have decreed a fate, I have given them their daily bread.

Now, you should decree a fate for my creature, give him his daily bread too.”

  (Ninhursag with newborn experiment)

Ninmah looked at Umul and turned to him.

She went nearer to Umul asked him questions but he could not speak.

She offered him bread to eat but he could not reach out for it.

He could not lie on ……., he could not …….

Standing up he could not sit down, could not lie down, he could not …… a house, he could not eat bread.

Ninmah answered Enki:

“The man you have fashioned is neither alive nor dead. He cannot support himself (?).”

102-111 Enki answered Ninmah:

“I decreed a fate for the first man with the weak hands, I gave him bread.

I decreed a fate for the man who turned back (?) the light, I gave him bread.

I decreed a fate for the man with broken, paralyzed feet, I gave him bread.

I decreed a fate for the man who could not hold back his urine, I gave him bread.

I decreed a fate for the woman who could not give birth, I gave her bread.

I decreed the fate for the one with neither penis nor vagina on its body,

I gave it bread.

My sister, …….”

2 lines fragmentary

 (Ninhursag & Enki discuss what to do next)

112-121 Ninmah answered Enki:

9 lines fragmentary

122-128 (Ninmah‘s answer continues)

“You (?) entered …….

Look, you do not dwell in heaven, you do not dwell on earth, you do not come out to look at the Land.

Where you do not dwell but where my house is built, your words cannot be heard.

Where you do not live but where my city is built, I myself am silenced (?).

My city is ruined, my house is destroyed, my child has been taken captive.

 (E-kurEnlil‘s house / Command Central in Nippur)

I am a fugitive who has had to leave the E-kur (Enlil‘s temple residence in Nippur),

even I myself could not escape from your hand.”

129-139 Enki replied to Ninmah:

“Who could change the words that left your mouth?

 (alien giant gods attempt fashioning “modern man”)

Remove Umul from your lap ……. Ninmah, may your work be ……,

you …… for me what is imperfect; who can oppose (?) this?

The man whom I shaped …… after you ……, let him pray!

Today let my penis be praised, may your wisdom be confirmed (?)!

May the enkum and ninkum …… proclaim your glory …….

My sister, the heroic strength …….

The song …… the writing (?) …….

The gods who heard …… let Umul build (?) my house …….”

140-141 Ninmah could not rival the great lord Enki.

Father Enki, your praise is sweet

 (“I’ve done it!”, Ninhursag successfully produces baby Adapa / Adam)

VERSION 3

https://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/section1/tr112.htm

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Enki and Ninmah: translation

1-11In those days, in the days when heaven and earth were created; in those nights, in the nights when heaven and earth were created; in those years, in the years when the fates were determined; when the Anuna gods were born; when the goddesses were taken in marriage; when the goddesses were distributed in heaven and earth; when the goddesses …… became pregnant and gave birth; when the gods were obliged (?) …… their food …… for their meals; the senior gods oversaw the work, while the minor gods were bearing the toil. The gods were digging the canals and piling up the silt in Harali. The gods, dredging the clay, began complaining about this life.

12-23At that time, the one of great wisdom, the creator of all the senior gods, Enki lay on his bed, not waking up from his sleep, in the deep engur, in the flowing water, the place the inside of which no other god knows. The gods said, weeping: “He is the cause of the lamenting!” Namma, the primeval mother who gave birth to the senior gods, took the tears of the gods to the one who lay sleeping, to the one who did not wake up from his bed, to her son: “Are you really lying there asleep, and …… not awake? The gods, your creatures, are smashing their ……. My son, wake up from your bed! Please apply the skill deriving from your wisdom and create a substitute (?) for the gods so that they can be freed from their toil!”

24-37At the word of his mother Namma, Enki rose up from his bed. In Hal-an-kug, his room for pondering, he slapped his thigh in annoyance. The wise and intelligent one, the prudent, …… of skills, the fashioner of the design of everything brought to life birth-goddesses (?). Enki reached out his arm over them and turned his attention to them. And after Enki, the fashioner of designs by himself, had pondered the matter, he said to his mother Namma: “My mother, the creature you planned will really come into existence. Impose on him the work of carrying baskets. You should knead clay from the top of the abzu; the birth-goddesses (?) will nip off the clay and you shall bring the form into existence. Let Ninmah act as your assistant; and let Ninimma, Cu-zi-ana, Ninmada, Ninbarag, Ninmug, …… and Ninguna stand by as you give birth. My mother, after you have decreed his fate, let Ninmah impose on him the work of carrying baskets.”
6 lines fragmentary

44-51Enki …… brought joy to their heart. He set a feast for his mother Namma and for Ninmah. All the princely birth-goddesses (?) …… ate delicate reed (?) and bread. An, Enlil, and the lord Nudimmud roasted holy kids. All the senior gods praised him: “O lord of wide understanding, who is as wise as you? Enki, the great lord, who can equal your actions? Like a corporeal father, you are the one who has the me of deciding destinies, in fact you are the me.”

52-55Enki and Ninmah drank beer, their hearts became elated, and then Ninmah said to Enki: “Man’s body can be either good or bad and whether I make a fate good or bad depends on my will.”

56-61Enki answered Ninmah: “I will counterbalance whatever fate — good or bad — you happen to decide.” Ninmah took clay from the top of the abzu in her hand and she fashioned from it first a man who could not bend his outstretched weak hands. Enki looked at the man who could not bend his outstretched weak hands, and decreed his fate: he appointed him as a servant of the king.

62-65Second, she fashioned one who turned back (?) the light, a man with constantly opened eyes (?). Enki looked at the one who turned back (?) the light, the man with constantly opened eyes (?), and decreed his fate allotting to it the musical arts, making him as the chief …… in the king’s presence.

66-68Third, she fashioned one with both feet broken, one with paralysed feet. Enki looked at the one with both feet broken, the one with paralysed feet and …… him for the work of …… and the silversmith and ……. ( 1 ms. has instead: She fashioned one, a third one, born as an idiot. Enki looked at this one, the one born as an idiot, and decreed his fate: he appointed him as a servant of the king.)

69-71Fourth, she fashioned one who could not hold back his urine. Enki looked at the one who could not hold back his urine and bathed him in enchanted water and drove out the namtar demon from his body.

72-74Fifth, she fashioned a woman who could not give birth. Enki looked at the woman who could not give birth, and decreed her fate: he made (?) her belong to the queen’s household. ( 1 ms. has instead: …… as a weaver, fashioned her to belong to the queen’s household.)

75-78Sixth, she fashioned one with neither penis nor vagina on its body. Enki looked at the one with neither penis nor vagina on its body and give it the name “Nibru eunuch (?)”, and decreed as its fate to stand before the king.

79-82Ninmah threw the pinched-off clay from her hand on the ground and a great silence fell. The great lord Enki said to Ninmah: “I have decreed the fates of your creatures and given them their daily bread. Come, now I will fashion somebody for you, and you must decree the fate of the newborn one!”

83-91Enki devised a shape with head, …… and mouth in its middle, and said to Ninmah: “Pour ejaculated semen into a woman’s womb, and the woman will give birth to the semen of her womb.” Ninmah stood by for the newborn ……. and the woman brought forth …… in the midst ……. In return (?), this was Umul: its head was afflicted, its place of …… was afflicted, its eyes were afflicted, its neck was afflicted. It could hardly breathe, its ribs were shaky, its lungs were afflicted, its heart was afflicted, its bowels were afflicted. With its hand and its lolling head it could not not put bread into its mouth; its spine and head were dislocated. The weak hips and the shaky feet could not carry (?) it on the field — Enki fashioned it in this way.

92-101Enki said to Ninmah: “For your creatures I have decreed a fate, I have given them their daily bread. Now, you should decree a fate for my creature, give him his daily bread too.” Ninmah looked at Umul and turned to him. She went nearer to Umul asked him questions but he could not speak. She offered him bread to eat but he could not reach out for it. He could not lie on ……., he could not ……. Standing up he could not sit down, could not lie down, he could not …… a house, he could not eat bread. Ninmah answered Enki: “The man you have fashioned is neither alive nor dead. He cannot support himself (?).”

102-111Enki answered Ninmah: “I decreed a fate for the first man with the weak hands, I gave him bread. I decreed a fate for the man who turned back (?) the light, I gave him bread. I decreed a fate for the man with broken, paralysed feet, I gave him bread. I decreed a fate for the man who could not hold back his urine, I gave him bread. I decreed a fate for the woman who could not give birth, I gave her bread. I decreed the fate for the one with neither penis nor vagina on its body, I gave it bread. My sister, …….” 2 lines fragmentary

112-121Ninmah answered Enki:
9 lines fragmentary

122-128 (Ninmah’s answer continues) “You (?) entered ……. Look, you do not dwell in heaven, you do not dwell on earth, you do not come out to look at the Land. Where you do not dwell but where my house is built, your words cannot be heard. Where you do not live but where my city is built, I myself am silenced (?). My city is ruined, my house is destroyed, my child has been taken captive. I am a fugitive who has had to leave the E-kur, even I myself could not escape from your hand.”

129-139Enki replied to Ninmah: “Who could change the words that left your mouth? Remove Umul from your lap ……. Ninmah, may your work be ……, you …… for me what is imperfect; who can oppose (?) this? The man whom I shaped …… after you ……, let him pray! Today let my penis be praised, may your wisdom be confirmed (?)! May the enkum and ninkum …… proclaim your glory ……. My sister, the heroic strength ……. The song …… the writing (?) ……. The gods who heard …… let Umul build (?) my house …….”

140-141Ninmah could not rival the great lord Enki. Father Enki, your praise is sweet!

VERSION 4

https://www.myuforesearch.it/language/en/2021/07/12/the-failure-of-enki-and-ninmah-to-create-man/

The failure of Enki and Ninmah to create human being.

 12 July 2021  Cesare Valocchia  0 Comments

Failure to create a human being: Why do the recovered Sumerian tablets speak of attempts to create mankind? Because like any respectable experimentation in order to improve something, we proceed in small steps, the same did the Anunna scientists when they decided to make the first human being.

In the poem of ATRAHASIS, (the great sage), written in the Akkadian language dating back to 1700 BC, the events that led to the creation of man are described. The minor gods, called Igigi, could not bear the enormous workload that had been imposed on them by their ancestors, the Anunnaki gods, so they started a revolt. The Anunnaki at that point decided to create a substitute to work the earth in place of the Igigi, a creature “who could bear the yoke of the gods” and who guaranteed their livelihood with his work on earth. Enki and the goddess Mammu created man (Lulu), mixing the flesh and blood of a lesser god sacrificed for the occasion into clay.

The creation of the first man by the Annunaki gods

In addition to the aforementioned creation myth, there is another text from the second millennia BC, entitled “Enki and Ninmah”, from which we learn that the creation of man was not at all simple. Creation also went by trial and error in the Mayan creation myth, the feathered serpent god and other primeval deities failed to create man on the first try. Even in that version, very far both in time and space, some tests were needed before reaching the desired result (the first two attempts failed, “the clay man” and “the wooden man”, while the third went to good end, “the corn man”).

As in the Mayan tradition Quichè also in the Mesopotamian one the myth of “Enki and Ninmah” reports the list of unsuccessful attempts, while the successful one is found both in the poem of ATRAHASIS (the great sage) and in the ENUMA ELISH (the poem of creation). The myth of “Enki and Ninmah” in a certain sense could be considered an appendix of the ATRAHASIS or of the ENUMA ELISH an in-depth study of the events that involved the creation of man.

Contents of the clay tablet “The myth of Enki and Ninmah”, Louvre Museum – Paris

The text opens with the situation already described in ATRAHASIS (the great sage). The gods are divided into two categories: the Anunnaki and the Igigi. The latter, as lesser gods, were responsible for hard work on earth, indispensable for the sustenance of their Anunnaki ancestors. The Igigi, tired of this life, crossed their arms and began to protest for their uncomfortable condition. In the myth of “Enki and Ninmah” the details of the protest are left out, but thanks to the content of the ATRAHASIS we know that it was not a peaceful protest at all, but rather a tumultuous revolt that reached the gates of the home of Enlil, the god who reigns over land.

According to the myth of “Enki and Ninmah” the lament of the Igigi also reached Apsu, the home of Enki, who was awakened by all that noise. Namma (or Nammu, probably the primordial mother of the gods whom the Babylonians in the Enuma Elish call Tiamat) explained to Enki the reason for so much noise and suggested that he release the Igigi from the burdensome task, creating a substitute who could carry the yoke of work in their place. Enki in his great wisdom decided that such a thing was feasible, so he summoned his sister Ninmah (Ninhursag) and gave her the necessary instructions to create man, plus he had the goddesses of birth summoned in order to assist his sister in that. ‘Opera.

Extract from the tablet of the myth of “Enki and Ninmah”

In those days, the days when heaven and earth were created,

In those nights, the nights when heaven and earth were created,

In those years, the years when destinies were set,

when the gods Anunna begat,

when the goddesses (mothers and daughters) got married,

when the goddesses (mothers and daughters) inhabited heaven and earth,

when the goddesses (mothers and daughters) became pregnant,

and the gods had to bring food to the dining rooms,

the greater gods supervised the work, and the lesser gods carried

the yoke of work.

They worked the canals of the land of Arali, in the earth and in the clay,

but they stopped work to complain about this life.

On that day the creator, the great god of great wisdom,

Enki, in his Engur, the place of groundwater that no god knows,

he slept in his rooms and was awakened

from the gods who complained

and got up from his bed.

The goddess Namma, the first mother who gave birth to the gods,

brought the tears of the lesser gods to her sleeping son,

to him who lay in his sleep,

(….)

“God the Creator, your creatures complain,

son, get up from your bed, turn your gaze, yours

wisdom,

create a substitute for the gods, so that they are free from the yoke

of work “

(translation:http://gizidda.altervista.org/container/sumerian_myths_translated_finale.pdf)

One of the creatures created by Ninmah with clay

Ninmah took the clay as directed by Enki and modeled the creation, but all his creatures had serious defects that did not allow him to perform the task for which they were intended, which is to work on the earth in place of the Igigi in order to bring the food in the dining rooms of the gods. Ninmah, assisted by the goddesses of birth, made six attempts but I never find the right recipe to create an accomplished man. The first man could not use his hands, the second man had vision problems, the third could not walk, the fourth did not hold urine, the fifth was a woman but could not give birth, and the sixth had no genital organs . Ninmah’s attempts proved to be a total failure and the latter indulged in disconsolate sorrow for having disappointed her brother Enki’s expectations. However Enki,

Extract from the tablet of the myth “Enki and Ninmah”

Ninmah took the clay from the lands north of the Abzu,

made a man but he didn’t keep his hands straight,

Enki saw the man, he did not keep his hands straight, and decreed his fate,

and put him in the king’s camp as a servant.

The second creation was a man who escaped the light,

Enki saw that man shunned the light,

and decreed his fate, made him a skilled musician,

put him in the king’s camp.

The third man who was created had feet that didn’t work,

Enki then saw that the man could not use his feet,

and made him a great worker of shining silver.

The fourth man could not hold his urine,

and Enki saw that the man did not hold back the urine,

and made him lie down in the water which drove out his evil.

The fifth was a woman who could not give birth,

Enki saw that the woman could not give birth,

and made her a maid in the queen’s house.

The sixth was a being without a penis or vagina,

Enki saw that the being had no penis or vagina and decreed the

fate, he called it ‘gift of Nippur’ and

made him an attendant for the king.

(translation:http://gizidda.altervista.org/container/sumerian_myths_translated_finale.pdf)

Curiously, as I anticipated in the introduction, even in the VUH People (the text of the Mayan creation) there is a reference to a couple of attempts to create man that did not give the expected results. According to the Mayan tradition Quichè the first man created from clay was deformed and was unable to stand upright, had veiled eyesight and was devoid of strength, all characteristics that are very reminiscent of the defects of the first creation described in the Mesopotamian myth of ” Enki and Ninmah “.

 This is not the only point in common between these two creationist texts given that in a passage of the Vuh people, to the point where the primordial gods wonder what to do, after having seen with regret that animals are unconscious creatures, totally incapable to worship and recognize their divine craftsmen.

We read the following words spoken by the gods:

“We have already tried with our first works, our first creatures; but we could not get praised and venerated by them. And then let’s try to make obedient, respectful beings who support and nourish us ”. As in the Mayan tradition, also according to the Mesopotamian tradition man was created to guarantee the sustenance of the gods. In this regard, the engravings on the tablet containing the myth of “Enki and Ninmah” speaking of the Igigi (in the future replaced by men) use unequivocal words: “they had to bring the food to the dining rooms” (of the Anunnaki).

The more we delve into the reading of ancient texts, the more a single common thread becomes evident for all civilizations on the planet.

Certainly, the parallelism that exists between the main figures of the Mayan pantheon and the Mesopotamian one cannot be a coincidence either. On the one hand, in Mexico the main god of the pantheon is represented by a feathered serpent (called by various names, Kukulcan, Gukumatz, etc.), on the other hand in Mesopotamia the gods who have a role in the destiny of man are Enki (the snake) and his brother Enlil (the eagle). The eagle reigns over the earth and the air while the snake reigns in the Apzu and in the subsoil, two entities which, however separate, cross their fates many times, in particular in the episode of the flood (also present in the Vuh people and in many other cultures from all over the world) The myth we are analyzing continues with Enki and Ninmah reversing their roles. After Ninmah’s failed attempts, Enki took creation in hand, leaving his sister the power to decide the destinies. Enki created a human-like creature and told Ninmah to place his semen inside the womb of a woman (presumably a goddess since the accomplished human was not yet created). The new attempt led to even worse results than the previous ones, with the birth of a sick creature, called Umul.

Extract from the tablet of the myth of “Enki and Ninmah

Enki then created a shape that had a head and a mouth,

and said to Ninmah:

“Pour the male semen into a woman’s uterus”

Ninmah approached the new born,

he whom the woman had given birth was disappointing,

he was Umul, his head was sick, his (…) was sick, the

eyes and neck were sick, he was not breathing, lungs and internal organs were sick,

with his bad hands and bad back he couldn’t

feeding, with sick feet and back could not work, so it was created.

Enki then said to Ninmah:

“The beings you created, I decreed their destinies, I nurtured;

you now, of the beings that I create, decree the destinies and put to eat

on their plate. “

Ninmah looked at Umul and walked over,

to being sick he spoke but he could not speak,

handed him some food but he couldn’t grab it,

could not use tools, could not lie,

could not sit if standing, could not keep (?) the house e

he could not feed Ninmah said to Enki:

“The being you have created is alive and dead, it cannot look after itself

and cannot live “.

(translation:http://gizidda.altervista.org/container/sumerian_myths_translated_finale.pdf)

Enki decreed that Ninmah be the one to decide the fate of Umul, the sick creature, as he had done for the six attempts made by his sister. Ninmah was unable to establish a destiny for this creature as she was alive and dead at the same time and was unable to fend for herself. Enki scolded her by reminding him of the six imperfect creatures she had generated and how he himself had established a suitable fate for each of them, despite their impairments. At this point the clay tablet is damaged and a considerable part of the text is missing, in any case it can be understood that Ninmah, feeling reprimanded, reacted by reminding Enki of an unspecified disaster that occurred in his city, accusing him of not having cared for when she had to abandon the E. Kur (the temple of Nippur) and when his son (the name is not indicated) was forced to flee. Enki replies to Ninmah to think about the creature’s fate, inviting her to give it back to him (perhaps so that he can decide his fate himself). Enki closes the discussion with his sister by decreeing that that day, that of the creations, would still be praised and celebrated despite the results not being up to expectations.

Extract from the tablet of the myth of “Enki and Ninmah”

My city and my home are destroyed, my fugitive son,

I myself had to leave E.Kur as a fugitive,

I couldn’t avoid your hand! “

Enki replied to Ninmah:

“Who can change the words you have spoken?

The sick creature (…) free from captivity (?)

Ninmah, your work (your work) is (…) you promised to (…) the

my imperfect work, who can contradict it?

The being that I created, let me have it back,

praise my offspring today (?), let your wisdom be recognized,

may the Enkum and Ninkum stand in front of us and speak the words of yours

glory, my sister, you heroine, be written (…) songs (…)

(translation:http://gizidda.altervista.org/container/sumerian_myths_translated_finale.pdf)

Cesare Valocchia

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