Captain John Allen Charlestown Middlesex Colonial America Massachusetts Places William Robert Thompson

CAPTAIN JOHN ALLEN ~ COLONIAL MASSACHUSETTS ~ 1616-1675 ~ 9th Great-Grandfather

Capt John Allen, wealthy shipping merchant, Charlestown, Middlesex, Massachusetts (1616-1675) (9th GGF)

1616–1675

BIRTH 16 JANUARY 1616 • Norwich, Norfolk, England

DEATH 27 MAR 1675 • Charlestown, Middlesex, Massachusetts, United States

9th great-grandfather

Captain John Allen  Birth: Jan. 16, 1616
Norwich, Norfolk, England
Death: Mar. 29, 1675
Charlestown, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, USA

Capt. John Allen, Jr., son of John Allen “the dyer” and his first wife Rebecca, Bapt. Jan. 7, 1615/6 at St. Martin at Palace parish church at Norwich, England.  Capt. Allen followed his 10-year older brother Rev. Thomas Allen (Bapt. Aug. 26, 1608) to Charlestown, Mass. by 1640. It is uncertain whether Capt. Allen m. his wife Sarah before crossing the Atlantic Ocean or after he arrived at Charlestown, Mass.

Capt. Allen was very involved in town and Mass. Bay affairs as well as concerning land claims in present-day Maine. He was a wealthy merchant involved in shipping between England, America and the West Indies and at his death is said to have been the wealthiest man at Charlestown, Mass.

Capt. Allen’s brother, Rev. Thomas Allen of Norwich, England and Charlestown, Mass., was associate pastor of the Charlestown Church under Rev. Zachariah Symms. He m. 1) circa 1639 at Charlestown, Anna Sadler, Harvard University at Cambridge, Mass. and settled Harvard’s estate, which included the bequest that Rev. Harvard’s personal library be given to the then fledgling Harvard College. Rev. Allen returned to Norwich, England during the Commonwealth era of William Cromwell (1651-1658) where he m. 2) the widow Joanna (Blake) Sedgewick, widow of Maj. Gen. Robert Sedgewick. Sedgewick was also of Charlestown, Mass. and had returned to England but d. on May 24, 1656 at Jamaica as Commissioner of Jamaica under Oliver Cromwell.

During the period of 1651 to 1658, Rev. Allen published at London the sermons and other religious writings of the deceased Rev. John Cotton of the First Chh. of Boston, Mass. In 1656 at Norwich Rev. Allen wrote a flowery recommendation in Latin to a work published that same year in Latin by Dr. John Robinson, then residing at Norwich, England, the eldest son of Rev. John Robinson, pastor of the 1620 Mayflower pilgrims. Rev. Allen died in relative obscurity on Sept. 21, 1673 at Norwich, England. Like all other Independants in England, he was severely restricted in his church affairs after the the death of Cromwell and the 1660 restoration of the Anglican Church of England.

Capt. John Allen d. testate at Charlestown, Mass. Mar. 27, 1675. His wife Sarah survived him and was living at Charlestown in December 1681. They had the following eight children b. at Charlestown:

• i. John Allen, 3rd, b. Oct. 16, 1640 (bapt. May 30, 1641); he was a student at Harvard in 1656/7, but is not mentioned in his father’s Feb. 1672/3 will.

• ii. Sarah Allen, b. Aug. 11, 1642 and d. in infancy Dec. 10, 1642.

• iii. Mary Allen, b. Feb. 6, 1643/4, d. at Charlestown May 13, 1672; m. Nathan Rainsford Nov. 28, 1665, son of Edward Rainsford ruling elder of the Boston First Chh., who d. before Apr. 3, 1676. They had three children but all three d. in infancy.

• iv. Elizabeth Allen, b. circa 1651, d. at Bristol, Mass. (now in Rhode Island) Mar. 25, 1709; m. 1) at Charlestown, Mass. Mar. 11, 1673/4, Capt. Nathan Hayman, who d. at Bristol, Mass. July 27, 1689. Their dau. Elizabeth Hayman was the wife of Rev. William Brattle of Cambridge, Mass. and mother ofGen. William Brattle of French & Indian War fame. Dau. Grace Hayman was the wife of John Otis the 4th of Barnstable, Mass., King’s attorney, Probate Judge of Barnstable County, Mass. and member of the King’s Honorable Council from 1747 until his death in 1758. The widow Elizabeth (Allen) Hayman m. 2) June 18, 1690 at Bristol, Mass. Nathaniel Blagrove, who died as recorder and Judge of Probate at Bristol, Rhode Island June 26, 1744.

• v. Samuel Allen, b. Nov. 29, 1656, d. betw. Feb. 1672/3, when called the eldest son in his father’s will, and 1682/3, when only his 11-year younger brother Thomas and sister Elizabeth consented to the sale of family property at Charlestown, Mass.; no known marriage or children.

• vi. Sarah Allen, b. May 11, 1659 and d. an infant the following July.

• vii. Rebecca Allen, b. Feb. 1659/60 (day missing in the record); m. Mar. 28, 1678 at Charlestown, Mass. (by Mr. Danforth) John Goodrich of Wethersfield, Conn.

• viii. Thomas Allen, b. Aug. 4, 1667 (bapt. Aug. 4, 1667), d. of fever at Charlestown, Mass. May 5, 1694, Æ 27; no known marriage or children.   

Birth:Jan. 16, 1616
Norwich
Norfolk, England
Death:Mar. 29, 1675
Charlestown
Suffolk County
Massachusetts, USA

Capt. John Allen, Jr., son of John Allen “the dyer” and his first wife Rebecca, was bapt. Jan. 7, 1615/6 at the St. Martin at Palace parish church at Norwich, England. Capt. Allen followed his 10-year older brother Rev. Thomas Allen (bapt. Aug. 26, 1608) to Charlestown, Mass. by 1640 where Capt. John Allen either m. his wife Sarah or was accompanied by her across the Atlantic.

Capt. John Allen was very involved in town and Mass. Bay affairs as well as land claims in the present-day State of Maine. He was a wealthy merchant involved in shipping between England, America and the West Indies and at his death is said to have been the wealthiest man at Charlestown, Mass.

Capt. Allen’s brother, Rev. Thomas Allen of Norwich, England and Charlestown, Mass., was associate pastor of the Charlestown Church under Rev. Zachariah Symms. He m. 1) circa 1639 at Charlestown, Anna Sadler, widow of Rev. John Harvard, latter the namesake of Harvard University at Cambridge, Mass. and settled Harvard’s estate. Rev. Allen returned to Norwich, England during the Commonwealth era (1651-1658) where he m. 2) the widow Joanna (Blake) Sedgewick, widow of Maj. Gen. Robert Sedgewick. Sedgewick was also of Charlestowm, Mass. and had returned to England but d. on May 24, 1656 at Jamaica as Commissioner of Jamaica under Oliver Cromwell.

During the priod of 1651 to 1658, Rev. Allen published at London the sermons and other religious writings of the deceased Rev. John Cotton of the First Chh. of Boston, Mass. In 1656 at Norwich Rev. Allen wrote a flowery recommendation in Latin to a work published that same year in Latin by Dr. John Robinson, then residing at Norwich, England, the eldest son of Rev. John Robinson, pastor of the 1620 Mayflower pilgrims. Rev. Allen died in relative obscurity on Sept. 21, 1673 at Norwich, England. Like all other Independants in England, he was severely restricted in his church affairs after the 1660 restoration of the Anglican Church of England.

Capt. John Allen d. testate at Charlestown, Mass. on Mar. 27, 1675. His wife Sarah survived him and was living at Charlestown in December 1681. They had the following eight children b. at Charlestown:

• i. John Allen, 3rd, b. Oct. 16, 1640 (bapt. May 30, 1641); he was a student at Harvard in 1656/7, but is not mentioned in his father’s Feb. 1672/3 will.

• ii. Sarah Allen, b. Aug. 11, 1642 and d. in infancy on Dec. 10, 1642.

• iii. Mary Allen, b. Feb. 6, 1643/4, d. at Charlestown on May 13, 1672; m. Nathan Rainsford on Nov. 28, 1665, son of Edward Rainsford ruling elder of the Boston First Chh., who d. before Apr. 3, 1676. They had three children but all three d. in infancy.

• iv. Elizabeth Allen, b. circa 1651, d. at Bristol, Mass. (now in Rhode Island) on Mar. 25, 1709; m. 1) at Charlestown, Mass. on Mar. 11, 1673/4, Capt. Nathan Hayman, who d. at Bristol, Mass. on July 27, 1689. Their dau. Elizabeth Hayman was the wife of Rev. William Brattle of Cambridge, Mass. and mother of Gen. William Brattle of French & Indian War fame. Dau. Grace Hayman was the wife of John Otis the 4th of Barnstable, Mass., King’s attorney, Probate Judge of Barnstable County, Mass. and member of the King’s Honorable Council from 1747 until his death in 1758. The widow Elizabeth (Allen) Hayman m. 2) on June 18, 1690 at Bristol, Mass. Nathaniel Blagrove, who died as recorder and Judge of Probate at Bristol, Rhode Island on June 26, 1744.

• v. Samuel Allen, b. Nov. 29, 1656, d. betw. Feb. 1672/3, when called the eldest son in his father’s will, and 1682/3, when only his 11-year younger brother Thomas and sister Elizabeth consented to the sale of family property at Charlestown, Mass.; no known marriage or children.

• vi. Sarah Allen, b. May 11, 1659 and d. an infant the following July.

• vii. Rebecca Allen, b. Feb. 1659/60 (day missing in the record); m. on Mar. 28, 1678 at Charlestown, Mass. (by Mr. Danforth) to John Goodrich of Wethersfield, Conn.

• viii. Thomas Allen, b. Aug. 4, 1667 (bapt. Aug. 4, 1667), d. of fever at Charlestown, Mass. on May 5, 1694, Æ 27; no known marriage or children.

There is no record of where Capt. John Allen or wife Sarah are interred, but that does not diminish the importance of their lives or to the genealogy of their descendants.


Family links:
Children:
Rebecca Allen Goodrich (1660 – ____)*

King Philip’s War

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

King Philip’s War
Part of the American Indian Wars

An artist’s rendition of Indians attacking a garrison house
DateJune 20, 1675 – April 12, 1678LocationMassachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, MaineResultColonial victory, Wabanaki victory in Maine
Belligerents
WampanoagsNipmucksPodunksNarragansettsNashawayWabanakisNew England Confederation
Mohegans
Pequots
Commanders and leaders
Metacomet (“King Philip”) Weetamoo, chief of Wampanoags (DOW)Canonchet, chief of Narragansetts Awashonks, chief of SakonnetsMuttawmp, chief of NipmucksMadockawando, chief of PenobscotsMogg Hegon, chief of AndrscogginsGov. Josiah WinslowGov. John LeverettGov. John Winthrop, Jr.Captain William TurnerCaptain Benjamin ChurchCaptain Michael PierceCaptain George DenisonUncasOnecoRobin Cassassinamon
Strength
c. 3,400c. 3,500
Casualties and losses
c. 3,000[1]c. 2,500+ [2]
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Wars of Restoration England
Expedition to PortugalWar of DevolutionVirginia RebellionMonmouth RebellionNine Years’ WarWilliamite War in IrelandWar of the Spanish SuccessionAnglo-Dutch WarsSecond WarThird WarAmerican Indian WarsKing Philip’s WarKing William’s WarQueen Anne’s War
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King Philip’s War (sometimes called the First Indian WarMetacom’s WarMetacomet’s WarPometacomet’s Rebellion, or Metacom’s Rebellion)[3] was an armed conflict in 1675–1678 between indigenous inhabitants of New England and New England colonists and their indigenous allies. The war is named for Metacom, the Wampanoag chief who adopted the name Philip because of the friendly relations between his father Massasoit and the Mayflower Pilgrims.[4] The war continued in the most northern reaches of New England until the signing of the Treaty of Casco Bay in April 1678.[5]

Massasoit had maintained a long-standing alliance with the colonists. Metacom (c. 1638–1676) was his younger son, and he became tribal chief in 1662 after Massasoit’s death. Metacom, however, forsook his father’s alliance between the Wampanoags and the colonists after repeated violations by the colonists.[6] The colonists insisted that the peace agreement in 1671 should include the surrender of Native guns; then three Wampanoags were hanged in Plymouth Colony in 1675 for the murder of another Wampanoag, which increased the tensions.[7] Native raiding parties attacked homesteads and villages throughout Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Maine over the next six months, and the Colonial militia retaliated. The Narragansetts remained neutral, but several individual Narragansetts participated in raids of colonial strongholds and militia, so colonial leaders deemed them to be in violation of peace treaties. The colonies assembled the largest army that New England had yet mustered, consisting of 1,000 militia and 150 Native allies, and Governor Josiah Winslow marshaled them to attack the Narragansetts in November 1675. They attacked and burned Native villages throughout Rhode Island territory, culminating with the attack on the Narragansetts’ main fort in the Great Swamp Fight. An estimated 600 Narragansetts were killed, and the Native coalition was then taken over by Narragansett sachem Canonchet. They pushed back the colonial frontier in Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, and Rhode Island colonies, burning towns as they went, including Providence in March 1676. However, the colonial militia overwhelmed the Native coalition and, by the end of the war, the Wampanoags and their Narragansett allies were almost completely destroyed.[8] On August 12, 1676, Metacom fled to Mount Hope where he was killed by the militia.

The war was the greatest calamity in seventeenth-century New England and is considered by many to be the deadliest war in Colonial American history.[9] In the space of little more than a year, 12 of the region’s towns were destroyed and many more were damaged, the economy of Plymouth and Rhode Island Colonies was all but ruined and their population was decimated, losing one-tenth of all men available for military service.[10][a] More than half of New England’s towns were attacked by Natives.[12] Hundreds of Wampanoags and their allies were publicly executed or enslaved, and the Wampanoags were left effectively landless.[13]

King Philip’s War began the development of an independent American identity. The New England colonists faced their enemies without support from any European government or military, and this began to give them a group identity separate and distinct from Britain.[14]

Contents

Historical context[edit]

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Plymouth Colony was established in 1620 with significant early help from local Natives, particularly Squanto and Massasoit. Subsequent colonists founded SalemBoston, and many small towns around Massachusetts Bay between 1628 and 1640, during a time of increased English immigration. The colonists progressively expanded throughout the territories of the several Algonquian-speaking tribes in the region. Prior to King Philip’s War, tensions fluctuated between Native tribes and the colonists, but relations were generally peaceful.[9][15]

The Rhode Island, Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, and New Haven colonies each developed separate relations with the WampanoagsNipmucsNarragansettsMohegansPequots, and other tribes of New England, whose territories historically had differing boundaries. Many of the neighboring tribes had been traditional competitors and enemies. As the colonial population increased, the New Englanders expanded their settlements along the region’s coastal plain and up the Connecticut River valley. By 1675, they had established a few small towns in the interior between Boston and the Connecticut River settlements.[citation needed]

The Wampanoag tribe under Metacomet’s leadership had entered into an agreement with the Plymouth Colony and believed that they could rely on the colony for protection. However, in the decades preceding the war, it became clear to them that the treaty did not mean that the Colonists were not allowed to settle in new territories.[9]

Failure of diplomacy[edit]

“King Philip’s Seat,” a meeting place on Mount Hope (Rhode Island)

Metacomet became sachem of the Pokanoket and Grand Sachem of the Wampanoag Confederacy in 1662 after the death of his older brother Grand Sachem Wamsutta (called “Alexander” by the colonists), who had succeeded their father Massasoit (d. 1661) as chief. Metacomet was well known to the colonists before his ascension as paramount chief to the Wampanoags, but he distrusted the colonists.[15]

The Plymouth colonists had passed laws making it illegal to have commerce with the Wampanoags.[citation needed][clarification needed] They learned that Wamsutta had sold a parcel of land to Roger Williams, so Governor Josiah Winslow had Wamsutta arrested, even though Wampanoags who lived outside of colonist jurisdiction were not accountable to Plymouth Colony laws. Metacomet began negotiating with the other Algonquian tribes against the Plymouth Colony soon after the death of his father and his brother.[16][page needed]

Population[edit]

The population of New England colonists totaled about 65,000 people.[17] They lived in 110 towns, of which 64 were in the Massachusetts Bay colony, which then included the southwestern portion of Maine. The towns had about 16,000 men of military age who were almost all part of the militia, as universal training was prevalent in all colonial New England towns. Many towns had built strong garrison houses for defense, and others had stockades enclosing most of the houses. All of these were strengthened as the war progressed. Some poorly populated towns were abandoned if they did not have enough men to defend them.[citation needed]

Each town had local militias based on all eligible men who had to supply their own arms. Only those who were too old, too young, disabled, or clergy were excused from military service. The militias were usually only minimally trained and initially did relatively poorly against the warring Natives, until more effective training and tactics could be devised. Joint forces of militia volunteers and volunteer Native allies were found to be the most effective. The Native allies of the colonists numbered about 1,000 from the Mohegans and Praying Natives, with about 200 warriors.[18][citation needed]

By 1676, the regional Native population had decreased to about 10,000 (exact numbers are unavailable), largely because of epidemics. These included about 4,000 Narragansetts of western Rhode Island and eastern Connecticut, 2,400 Nipmucs of central and western Massachusetts, and 2,400 combined in the Massachusett and Pawtucket tribes living around Massachusetts Bay and extending northwest to Maine. The Wampanoags and Pokanokets of Plymouth and eastern Rhode Island are thought to have numbered fewer than 1,000. About one in four were considered to be warriors. By then, the Natives had almost universally adopted steel knives, tomahawks, and flintlock muskets as their weapons. The various tribes had no common government. They had distinct cultures and often warred among themselves,[19] although they all spoke related languages from the Algonquian family.

The trial[edit]

John Sassamon was an Native convert to Christianity, commonly referred to as a “praying Indian.” He played a key role as a “cultural mediator,” negotiating with both colonists and Natives while belonging to neither party.[20] He was an early graduate of Harvard College and served as a translator and adviser to Metacomet. He reported to the governor of Plymouth Colony that Metacomet planned to gather allies for Native attacks on widely dispersed colonial settlements.[21]

Metacomet was brought before a public court, where court officials admitted that they had no proof but warned that they would confiscate Wampanoag land and guns if they had any further reports that he was conspiring to start a war. Not long after, Sassamon’s body was found in the ice-covered Assawompset Pond, and Plymouth Colony officials arrested three Wampanoags on the testimony of an Native witness, including one of Metacomet’s counselors. A jury that included six Native elders convicted the men of Sassamon’s murder, and they were executed by hanging on June 8, 1675 (O.S.), at Plymouth.[citation needed]

Southern theater, 1675[edit]

Raid on Swansea[edit]

A band of Pokanokets attacked several isolated homesteads in the small Plymouth colony settlement of Swansea on June 20, 1675.[22] They laid siege to the town, then destroyed it five days later and killed several more people. On June 27, 1675, a full eclipse of the moon occurred in the New England area,[23] and various tribes in New England thought it a good omen for attacking the colonists.[24] Officials from the Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay colonies responded quickly to the attacks on Swansea; on June 28, they sent a punitive military expedition that destroyed the Wampanoag town at Mount Hope in Bristol, Rhode Island.

The war quickly spread and soon involved the Podunk and Nipmuc tribes. During the summer of 1675, the Natives attacked at Middleborough and Dartmouth, Massachusetts (July 8), Mendon, Massachusetts (July 14), Brookfield, Massachusetts (August 2), and Lancaster, Massachusetts (August 9). In early September, they attacked DeerfieldHadley, and Northfield, Massachusetts.

Siege of Brookfield[edit]

Wheeler’s Surprise and the ensuing Siege of Brookfield were fought in August 1675 between Nipmuc Natives under Muttawmp and the colonists of Massachusetts Bay under the command of Thomas Wheeler and Captain Edward Hutchinson.[25] The battle consisted of an initial ambush on August 2, 1675, by the Nipmucs against Wheeler’s unsuspecting party. Eight men from Wheeler’s company died during the ambush: Zechariah Phillips of Boston, Timothy Farlow of Billerica, Edward Coleborn of Chelmsford, Samuel Smedly of Concord, Shadrach Hapgood of Sudbury, Sergeant Eyres, Sergeant Prichard, and Corporal Coy of Brookfield.[26] Following the ambush was an attack on Brookfield, Massachusetts, and the consequent besieging of the remains of the colonial force. The Nipmuc forces harried the settlers for two days, until they were driven off by a newly arrived force of colonial soldiers under the command of Major Simon Willard.[27] The siege took place at Ayers’ Garrison in West Brookfield, but the location of the initial ambush was a subject of extensive controversy among historians in the late nineteenth century.[25]

The New England Confederation comprised the Massachusetts Bay ColonyPlymouth ColonyNew Haven Colony, and Connecticut Colony; they declared war on the Natives on September 9, 1675. The Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations tried to remain neutral, but much of the war was fought on Rhode Island soil; Providence and Warwick suffered extensive damage from the Natives.

The next colonial expedition was to recover crops from abandoned fields along the Connecticut River for the coming winter and included almost 100 farmers and militia, plus teamsters to drive the wagons.

Battle of Bloody Brook[edit]

The Battle of Bloody Brook was fought on September 12, 1675, between militia from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and a band of Natives led by Nipmuc sachem Muttawmp. The Natives ambushed colonists escorting a train of wagons carrying the harvest from Deerfield to Hadley. They killed at least 40 militia men and 17 teamsters out of a company that included 79 militia.[11]

Attack on Springfield[edit]

The Natives next attacked Springfield, Massachusetts, on October 5, 1675, the Connecticut River’s largest settlement at the time. They burned to the ground nearly all of Springfield’s buildings, including the town’s grist mill. Most of the Springfielders who escaped unharmed took cover at the house of Miles Morgan, a resident who had constructed one of the settlement’s few fortified blockhouses.[28] An Native servant who worked for Morgan managed to escape and alerted the Massachusetts Bay troops under the command of Major Samuel Appleton, who broke through to Springfield and drove off the attackers.

Morgan’s sons were famous Native fighters in the territory. His son Peletiah was killed by Natives in 1675. Springfielders later honored Miles Morgan with a large statue in Court Square.[28]

The Great Swamp Fight[edit]

Main article: Great Swamp FightEngraving depicting the colonial assault on the Narragansetts’ fort in the Great Swamp Fight in December 1675

On November 2, Plymouth Colony governor Josiah Winslow led a combined force of colonial militia against the Narragansett tribe. The Narragansetts had not been directly involved in the war, but they had sheltered many of the Wampanoag fighters, women, and children. Some of their warriors had participated in several Native attacks. The colonists distrusted the tribe and did not understand the various alliances. As the colonial forces went through Rhode Island, they found and burned several Native towns which had been abandoned by the Narragansetts, who had retreated to a massive fort in a frozen swamp. The cold weather in December froze the swamp so that it was relatively easy to traverse. The colonial force found the Narragansett fort on December 19, 1675, near present-day South Kingstown, Rhode Island; they attacked in a combined force of Plymouth, Massachusetts, and Connecticut militia numbering about 1,000 men, including about 150 Pequots and Mohegan Native allies. The fierce battle that followed is known as the Great Swamp Fight. It is believed that the militia killed about 600 Narragansetts. They burned the fort (occupying over 5 acres (20,000 m2) of land) and destroyed most of the tribe’s winter stores.

Most of the Narragansett warriors escaped into the frozen swamp. The colonists lost many of their officers in this assault; about 70 of their men were killed and nearly 150 more wounded. The rest of the colonial assembled forces returned to their homes, lacking supplies for an extended campaign. The nearby towns in Rhode Island provided care for the wounded until they could return to their homes.[29]

Mohawk intervention[edit]

In December 1675, Metacomet established a winter camp in Schaghticoke, New York.[11] His reason for moving into New York has been attributed to a desire to enlist Mohawk aid in the conflict.[30] Though New York was a non-belligerent, Governor Edmund Andros was nonetheless concerned at the arrival of the Wampanoag sachem.[11] Either with Andros’ sanction, or of their own accord, the Mohawk—traditional rivals of the Algonquian people—launched a surprise assault against a 500-warrior band under Metacomet’s command the following February.[11][30] The “ruthless” coup de main resulted in the death of between 70 and as many as 460 of the Wampanoag.[31][11] His forces crippled, Metacomet withdrew to New England, pursued “relentlessly” by Mohawk forces who attacked Algonquian settlements and ambushed their supply parties.[11][32][33]

Over the next several months, fear of Mohawk attack led some Wampanoag to surrender to the colonists, and one historian described the decision of the Mohawk to engage Metacomet’s forces as “the blow that lost the war for Philip”.[30][11]

Native campaign[edit]

Natives attacked and destroyed more settlements throughout the winter of 1675–1676 in their effort to annihilate the colonists. Attacks were made at AndoverBridgewaterChelmsfordGrotonLancasterMarlboroughMedfieldMedfordPortlandProvidenceRehobothScituateSeekonkSimsburySudburySuffieldWarwickWeymouth, and Wrentham, including modern-day Norfolk and Plainville. The famous account written and published by Mary Rowlandson after the war gives a colonial captive’s perspective on the conflict.[34]

Southern theater, 1676[edit]

Lancaster raid[edit]

The Lancaster raid in February 1676 was an Native attack on the community of Lancaster, Massachusetts. Philip led a force of 1,500 WampanoagNipmuc, and Narragansett Natives in a dawn attack on the isolated village, which then included all or part of the neighboring modern communities of Bolton and Clinton. They attacked five fortified houses. The house of the Rev. Joseph Rowlandson was set on fire, and most of its occupants were slaughtered—more than 30 people. Rowlandson’s wife Mary was taken prisoner, and afterward wrote a best-selling captivity narrative of her experiences. Many of the community’s other houses were destroyed before the Natives retreated northward.

Plymouth Plantation Campaign[edit]

Site of “Nine Men’s Misery” in Cumberland, Rhode Island where Captain Pierce’s troops were tortured

The spring of 1676 marked the high point for the combined tribes when they attacked Plymouth Plantation on March 12. The town withstood the assault, but the Natives had demonstrated their ability to penetrate deep into colonial territory. They attacked three more settlements; Longmeadow (near Springfield), Marlborough, and Simsbury were attacked two weeks later. They killed Captain Pierce[35] and a company of Massachusetts soldiers between Pawtucket and the Blackstone’s settlement. Several colonial men were tortured and buried at Nine Men’s Misery in Cumberland as part of the Natives’ ritual torture of enemies. They also burned the settlement of Providence to the ground on March 29. At the same time, a small band of Natives infiltrated and burned part of Springfield while the militia was away.Colonists defending their settlement (non-contemporary depiction)

The settlements within the modern-day state of Rhode Island became a literal island colony for a time as the settlements at Providence and Warwick were sacked and burned, and the residents were driven to Newport and Portsmouth on Rhode Island. The Connecticut River towns had thousands of acres of cultivated crop land known as the bread basket of New England, but they had to limit their plantings and work in large armed groups for self-protection.[36]:20 Towns such as SpringfieldHatfieldHadley, and Northampton, Massachusetts, fortified themselves, reinforced their militias, and held their ground, though attacked several times. The small towns of NorthfieldDeerfield, and several others were abandoned as the surviving settlers retreated to the larger towns. The towns of the Connecticut colony were largely unharmed in the war, although more than 100 Connecticut militia died in their support of the other colonies.

Attack on Sudbury[edit]

The Attack on Sudbury was fought in Sudbury, Massachusetts, on April 21, 1676. The town was surprised by Native raiders at dawn, who besieged a local garrison house and burned several unoccupied houses and farms. Reinforcements that arrived from nearby towns were drawn into ambushes by the Natives; Captain Samuel Wadsworth lost his life and half of a 70-man militia in such an ambush.

Battle of Turner’s Falls[edit]

On May 18, 1676, Captain William Turner of the Massachusetts Militia and a group of about 150 militia volunteers (mostly minimally trained farmers) attacked an Native fishing camp at Peskeopscut on the Connecticut River, now called Turners Falls, Massachusetts. The colonists killed 100–200 Natives in retaliation for earlier Native attacks against Deerfield and other settlements and for the colonial losses in the Battle of Bloody Brook. Turner and nearly 40 of the militia were killed during the return from the falls.[37]

The colonists defeated an attack at Hadley on June 12, 1676 with the help of their Mohegan allies, scattering most of the Native survivors into New Hampshire and farther north. Later that month, a force of 250 Natives was routed near Marlborough, Massachusetts. Combined forces of colonial volunteers and their Native allies continued to attack, kill, capture, or disperse bands of NarragansettsNipmucs, and Wampanoags as they tried to plant crops or return to their traditional locations. The colonists granted amnesty to those who surrendered or who were captured and showed that they had not participated in the conflict. Captives who had participated in attacks on the many settlements were hanged, enslaved, or put to indentured servitude, depending upon the colony involved.

Second Battle of Nipsachuck[edit]

The Second Battle of Nipsachuck occurred on July 2, 1676 and included a rare use of a cavalry charge by the English colonists. In the summer of 1676, a band of over 100 Narragansetts led by female sachem Quaiapen returned to northern Rhode Island, apparently seeking to recover cached seed corn for planting. They were attacked by a force of 400, composed of 300 Connecticut colonial militia and about 100 Mohegan and Pequot warriors, and Quaiapen was killed along with the leaders as they sought refuge in Mattekonnit (Mattity) Swamp in what is now North Smithfield, while the remainder of the survivors were sold into slavery.[38]

Battle of Mount Hope[edit]

Benjamin Church: Father of American Rangers

Metacomet’s allies began to desert him, and more than 400 had surrendered to the colonists by early July. Metacomet took refuge in the Assowamset Swamp below Providence, and the colonists formed raiding parties of militia and Native allies. Metacomet was killed by one of these teams when he was tracked down by Captain Benjamin Church and Captain Josiah Standish of the Plymouth Colony militia at Mount Hope in Bristol, Rhode Island. He was shot and killed by an Native named John Alderman on August 12, 1676.[39] Metacomet’s corpse was beheaded, then drawn and quartered, a traditional treatment of criminals in this time period. His head was displayed in Plymouth for a generation.[40]

Captain Church and his soldiers captured Pocasset war chief Anawan on August 28, 1676, at Anawan Rock in Rehoboth, Massachusetts. He was an old man at the time, and a chief captain of Metacomet. His capture marked the final event in King Philip’s War, as he was also beheaded.

Northern Theater (Maine and Acadia)[edit]

Native revenge on Richard Waldron for his role in King Philip’s War, Dover, New Hampshire (1689)

Before the outbreak of war, English settlers in Maine and New Hampshire lived peaceably with their Wabanaki neighbors. Colonists engaged in fishing, harvesting timber, and trade with Natives. By 1657 English towns and trading posts stretched along the coast eastward to the Kennebec River. These communities were scattered and lacked fortifications. The defenseless posture of English settlements reflected the amicable relationship between Wabanakis and colonists to that time.[41]

Upon hearing news of the Wampanoag attack on Swansea, colonists in York marched up the Kennebec River in June 1675 and demanded that Wabanakis turn over their guns and ammunition as a sign of goodwill. Apart from being an affront to their sovereignty, Natives depended on their guns to hunt. After handing over some of their weapons, many Wabanakis starved the following winter. English colonists exacerbated tensions by shooting at Penobscots in Casco Bay and drowning the infant son of Pequawket sagamore Squando. Impelled by hunger and English violence, Wabanakis began raiding trading posts and attacking settlers.[42][43]

Under the leadership of Androscoggin sagamore Mogg Hegon and Penobscot sagamore Madockawando, Wabanakis annihilated English presence east of the Saco River. Three major campaigns (one each year) were launched by the Natives in 16751676, and 1677, most of which led to a massive colonial response. Richard Waldron and Charles Frost led the English colonial forces in the northern region. Waldron sent forces that attacked the Mi’kmaq in Acadia.

Throughout the campaigns, Mogg Hegon repeatedly attacked towns such as Black Point (Scarborough), Wells, and Damariscove, building an Native navy out of the approximately 40 sloops and a dozen 30-ton ships previously armed by militia. Maine’s fishing industry was completely destroyed by the Wabanaki flotilla. Records from Salem record 20 ketches stolen and destroyed in one raid in Maine.[44]

Colonial responses to Wabanaki attacks generally failed in both their objectives and accomplishments. Likely upon learning that Mohawks had agreed to enter the war on New England’s side, Wabanakis sued for peace in 1677. The official fighting ended in the northern theater with the Treaty of Casco (1678). The treaty allowed English settlers to return to Maine and acknowledged Wabanaki triumph in the conflict by requiring each English family to pay Wabanakis a peck of corn each year as tribute.[45][46]

By the end of the war, the Northern Campaigns saw approximately 400 settlers die, Maine’s fishing economy eviscerated, and the Natives maintaining power in eastern and northern Maine. There is not an accurate account of the number of Natives who died, but it is thought to be between 100 and 300.[44]

Role of Dedham[edit]

See also: History of Dedham, Massachusetts, 1635–1699 § King Phillip’s War

During the war, men from Dedham went off to fight and several died.[47] More former Dedhamites who had moved on to other towns died than men who were still living in the community, however.[48] They included Robert Hinsdale, his four sons, and Jonathan Plympton who died at the Battle of Bloody Brook.[49][50] John Plympton was burned at the stake after being marched to Canada with Quentin Stockwell.[51]

Zachariah Smith was passing through Dedham on April 12, 1671 when he stopped at the home of Caleb Church in the “sawmill settlement” on the banks of the Neponset River.[52] The next morning he was found dead, having been shot.[52] A group of praying Indians found him and suspicion fell on a group on non-Christian Nipmucs who were also heading south to Providence.[52] This was the “first actual outrage of King Phillip’s War.”[53] One of the Nipmucs, a son of Matoonas, was found guilty and hanged on Boston Common.[54] For the next six years his head would be impaled on a pike at the end of the gallows as a warning to other native peoples.[54] Dedham then readied its cannon, which had been issued by the colony in 1650, in preparation for an attack that never came.[54]

After the raid on Swansea, the colony ordered the militias of several towns, including Dedham, to have 100 soldiers ready to march out of town on an hour’s notice.[55] Captain Daniel Henchmen took command of the men and left Boston on June 26, 1675.[55] They arrived in Dedham by nightfall and the troops became worried by an eclipse of the moon, which they took as a bad omen.[55] Some claimed to see native scalplocks and bows in the moon.[55] Dedham was largely spared from the fighting and was not attacked, but they did build a fortification and offered tax cuts to men who joined the calvary.[55]

Plymouth Colony governor Josiah Winslow and Captain Benjamin Church rode from Boston to Dedham to take charge of the 465 soldiers and 275 cavalry assembling there and together departed on December 8, 1675 for the Great Swamp Fight.[56][49][b] When the commanders arrived, they also found “a vast assortment of teamsters, volunteers, servants, service personnel, and hangers-on.”[49] Dedham’s John Bacon died in the battle.[57]

During the battle in Lancaster in February 1676, Jonas Fairbanks and his son Joshua both died.[58] Richard Wheeler, whose son Joseph was killed in battle the previous August, also died that day.[58] When the town of Medfield was attacked, they fired a cannon as a warning to Dedham.[59] Residents of nearby Wrentham abandoned their community and fled for the safety of Dedham and Boston.[60]

Pomham, one of Phillip’s chief advisors, was captured in Dedham on July 25, 1676.[53][61] Several Christian Indians had seen his band in the woods, nearly starved to death.[61] Captain Samuel Hunting[c] led 36 men from Dedham and Medfield and joined 90 Indians on a hunt to find them.[61] A total of 15 of the enemy were killed and 35 were captured.[61] Pomham, though he was so wounded he could not stand, grabbed hold of an English soldier and would have killed him had one of the settler’s compatriots not come to his rescue.[61]

John Plympton and Quentin Stockwell were captured in Deerfield in September 1677 and marched to Canada.[51] Stockell was eventually ransomed and wrote an account of his ordeal, but Plympton was burned at the stake.[51]

Aftermath[edit]

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The site of King Philip’s death in Misery Swamp on Mount Hope (Rhode Island)

Southern New England[edit]

The war in southern New England largely ended with Metacomet’s death. More than 1,000 colonists and 3,000 Natives had died.[1] More than half of all New England towns were attacked by Native warriors, and many were completely destroyed.[12] Several Natives were enslaved and transported to Bermuda, including Metacomet’s son, and numerous Bermudians today claim ancestry from the Native exiles. Members of the sachem’s extended family were placed among colonists in Rhode Island and eastern Connecticut. Other survivors joined western and northern tribes and refugee communities as captives or tribal members. Some of the Native refugees returned to southern New England.[62] The Narragansetts, Wampanoags, Podunks, Nipmucks suffered substantial losses, several smaller bands were virtually eliminated as organized bands, and even the Mohegans were greatly weakened.

The Colony of Rhode Island was devastated by the war, as its principal city Providence was destroyed. Nevertheless, the Rhode Island legislature issued a formal rebuke to Connecticut Governor John Winthrop on October 26, scarcely six months after the burning of the city—although Winthrop had died. The “official letter” places blame squarely on the United Colonies of New England for causing the war by provoking the Narragansetts.[63]

Sir Edmund Andros had been appointed governor of New York in 1674 by the Duke of York, who claimed that his authority extended as far north as Maine’s northern boundary. He negotiated a treaty with some of the northern Native bands in Maine on April 12, 1678. Metacomet’s Pennacook allies had made a separate peace with the colonists as the result of early battles that are sometimes identified as part of King Philip’s War. The tribe nevertheless lost members and eventually its identity as the result of the war.[64]

Plymouth Colony[edit]

Plymouth Colony lost close to eight percent of its adult male population and a smaller percentage of women and children to Native warfare or other causes associated with the war.[65] Native losses were much greater, with about 2,000 men killed or who died of injuries in the war, more than 3,000 dying of sickness or starvation, and another 1,000 Natives sold into slavery and transported to other areas, first to British-controlled islands in the Caribbean such as Jamaica and Barbados, then, as captives from the war were banned for further sale, Natives were sold to non-British markets in SpainPortugal, the Azores, and Madeira.[66] About 2,000 Natives escaped to other tribes to the north or west; they joined continued Native attacks from those bases well into the next century. Historians estimate that, as a result of King Philip’s War, the Native population of southern New England was reduced by about 40 to 80 percent.[citation needed]

Northern New England[edit]

In northern New England, conflict continued for decades in Maine, New Hampshire, and northern Massachusetts. Wabanakis gradually entered the French orbit as English incursions on their territory continued.[67] There were six wars over the next 74 years between New France and New England, along with their respective Native allies, starting with King William’s War in 1689. (See the French and Native WarsFather Rale’s War, and Father Le Loutre’s War.) The conflict in northern New England was largely over the border between New England and Acadia, which New France defined as the Kennebec River in southern Maine.[68][69][70] Many colonists from northeastern Maine and Massachusetts temporarily relocated to larger towns in Massachusetts and New Hampshire to avoid Wabanaki raids.[5]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Schultz and Tougias argue that 600 out of the about 80,000 colonists (0.75%) and 3,000 out of 10,000 Indians (30%) lost their lives in the war.[11]
  2. ^ Hanson has the date as December 9th.[49]
  3. ^ The son of John Hunting.[61]

References[edit]

  1. Jump up to:a b Elson, Henry William (1904). “VI. Colonial New England Affairs: King Philip’s War”. History of the United States of America. New York: The MacMillan Company. Retrieved August 31, 2020.
  2. ^ Cray, Jr, Robert E. (2009). “‘Weltering in their own blood’: puritan casualties in King Philip’s War”Westfield State University.
  3. ^ Faludi, Susan (September 7, 2007). “America’s Guardian Myths”The New York Times. Retrieved September 6, 2007.
  4. ^ Lepore.
  5. Jump up to:a b Norton.
  6. ^ Silverman, David (2019). This Land Is Their Land. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 298.
  7. ^ Silverman, p. 295–298.
  8. ^ King Philip’s War BRITISH-NATIVE AMERICAN CONFLICTat the Encyclopædia Britannica
  9. Jump up to:a b c Drake, p. 1–15.
  10. ^ Gould, Philip (Winter 1996). “Reinventing Benjamin Church: Virtue, Citizenship and the History of King Philip’s War in Early National America”. Journal of the Early Republic16 (4): 645–657. doi:10.2307/3124421JSTOR 3124421.
  11. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h Schultz and Tougias.
  12. Jump up to:a b “1675-King Philip’s War”. Society of Colonial Wars in the State of Connecticut. 2011. Retrieved January 8, 2016.
  13. ^ Silverman, p. 348–353.
  14. ^ Lepore, p. 5–7.
  15. Jump up to:a b Silverman.
  16. ^ Howe, George (1958). Mount HopeISBN 0670490814.
  17. ^ Historical Statistics of the United States: Colonial Times to 1970 (PDF) (Report). 1975. Retrieved July 8, 2020.
  18. ^ Exact numbers of Indian allies are unavailable but about 200 warriors are mentioned in different dispatches implying a total population of about 800-1,000.
  19. ^ Osgood, Herbert L. (1904). The American Colonies in the Seventeenth Century1. p. 543.
  20. ^ Lepore, p. 10.
  21. ^ Philbrick, p. 221.
  22. ^ Church, Benjamin (1639-1718) (June 5, 1865). The History of King Philip’s War. HathiTrust. Retrieved August 12, 2015.
  23. ^ “Moon Eclipse calculation”. Retrieved December 22,2011.[original research?]
  24. ^ Leach, p. 46.
  25. Jump up to:a b Schultz and Tougias, p. 151.
  26. ^ Captain Thomas Wheeler’s Narrative, p. 4: https://archive.org/stream/captainthomaswhe00whee#page/4/mode/2up/search/smedly.
  27. ^ Peirce, Ebenezer Weaver (1878). Indian History, Biography and Genealogy: Pertaining to the Good Sachem Massasoit of the Wampanoag Tribe, and His DescendantsNorth Abington, Mass.: Zerviah Gould Mitchell.
  28. Jump up to:a b “Miles Morgan”. Retrieved August 12, 2015.
  29. ^ Leach, p. 130–132.
  30. Jump up to:a b c Drake, p. 122.
  31. ^ Barr.
  32. ^ Calloway, Colin (2000). After King Philip’s War: Presence and Persistence in Indian New England. University Press of New England. ISBN 1611680611.
  33. ^ Barr, Daniel (2006). Unconquered: The Iroquois League at War in Colonial America. Greenwood. p. 73ISBN 0275984664.
  34. ^ “The Narrative of the Captivity and the Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson”City University of New York.
  35. ^ “Capt Michael Pierce’s Defeat (1615 – 1676) – Find a Grave Memorial”. Retrieved August 12, 2015.
  36. ^ Phelps, Noah Amherst (1845). History of Simsbury, Granby, and Canton; from 1642 to 1845Hartford: Press of Case, Tiffany and Burnham.
  37. ^ Leach, p. 200–203.
  38. ^ “NRHP nomination for Second Battle of Nipsachuck Battlefield (redacted)” (PDF). Rhode Island Preservation. Retrieved September 8, 2016.
  39. ^ Gould, p. 647.
  40. ^ Schultz and Tougias, p. 290.
  41. ^ Churchill, Edwin A. (1995). “Mid-Seventeenth Century Maine: A World on the Edge”. In Baker, Emerson W.; Churchill, Edwin A.; D’Abate, Richard S.; Jones, Kristine L.; Konrad, Victor A.; Prins, Harald E.L. (eds.). American Beginnings: Exploration, Culture, and Cartography in the Land of NorumbegaLincolnUniversity of Nebraska Press. pp. 242–245.
  42. ^ Mandell, Daniel R. (2010). King Philip’s War: Colonial Expansion, Native Resistance, and the End of Indian Sovereignty. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 77–81.
  43. ^ Mandell, Daniel R. Documentary History of the State of Maine6. Portland: Maine Historical Society. pp. 177–180.
  44. Jump up to:a b Duncan, Roger F. (2002). Coastal Maine: A Maritime History. Woodstock: Countryman.
  45. ^ Mandell, King Philip’s War, pp. 133–134.
  46. ^ Belknap, Jeremy (1784). The History of New-Hampshire1. Philadelphia: Robert Aitken. p. 158–159.
  47. ^ Lockridge 1985, p. 68.
  48. ^ Hanson 1976, p. 91-92.
  49. Jump up to:a b c d Hanson 1976, p. 92.
  50. ^ Lockridge 1985, p. 59.
  51. Jump up to:a b c Hanson 1976, p. 97.
  52. Jump up to:a b c Hanson 1976, p. 89.
  53. Jump up to:a b Bedini, Silvio A. (2003). “The History Corner: Joshua Fisher (1621-1672) Colonial Inn-keeper and Surveyor, Part 1”Professional Surveyor Magazine (September). Retrieved April 17,2021.
  54. Jump up to:a b c Hanson 1976, p. 90.
  55. Jump up to:a b c d e Hanson 1976, p. 91.
  56. ^ Cite error: The named reference mayflower was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  57. ^ Hanson 1976, p. 92-93.
  58. Jump up to:a b Hanson 1976, p. 93.
  59. ^ Hanson 1976, p. 94.
  60. ^ Hanson 1976, p. 95.
  61. Jump up to:a b c d e f Hanson 1976, p. 96.
  62. ^ Spady, James O’Neil (Summer 1995). “As if in a Great Darkness: Native American Refugees of the Middle Connecticut River Valley in the Aftermath of King Philip’s War: 1677–1697”. Historical Journal of Massachusetts23 (2): 183–197.
  63. ^ Allen, Zachariah (April 10, 1876). Bi-centenary of the Burning of Providence in 1676: Defence of the Rhode Island System of Treatment of the Indians, and of Civil and Religious Liberty. An Address Delivered Before the Rhode Island Historical Society. Providence: Providence Press Company. pp. 11-12. Retrieved February 11, 2019. providence burned 1676.
  64. ^ “Seacoast NH History – Colonial Era – Cochecho Massacre”. Archived from the original on January 14, 2010. Retrieved August 12, 2015.
  65. ^ Philbrick, p. 332.
  66. ^ Peterson, Mark. The City-State of Boston. Princeton University Press, 2019, pages 130-131
  67. ^ Prins, Harald E. L. (March 1999). “Storm Clouds over Wabanakiak: Confederacy Diplomacy Until Dummer’s Treaty (1727)”The Atlantic Policy Congress of First Nations Chiefs. Passamaquoddy Tribe at Pleasant Point. Retrieved May 19, 2016.
  68. ^ Williamson, William (1832). The History of the State of Maine2. p. 27.
  69. ^ Griffiths, N.E.S. (2005). From Migrant to Acadian: A North American Border People, 1604-1755. McGill-Queen’s University Press. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-7735-2699-0.
  70. ^ Campbell, Gary (2005). The Road to Canada: The Grand Communications Route from Saint John to Quebec. Goose Lane Editions and The New Brunswick Heritage Military Project. p. 21.

Works cited[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

Primary sources[edit]

  • Easton, John (1675). A Relation of the Indian War, by Mr. Easton, of Rhode Island.
  • Eliot, John (1980). Rhonda, James P.; Bowden, Henry W. (eds.). “Indian Dialogues”: A Study in Cultural Interaction. Greenwood Press.
  • Mather, Increase (1676). A Brief History of the Warr with the Natives in New-England. Boston and London.
  • Mather, Increase (2003) [1677]. Relation of the Troubles Which Have Happened in New England by Reason of the Natives There, from the Year 1614 to the Year 1675. Kessinger Publishing.
  • Mather, Increase (1862). The History of King Philip’s War by the Rev. Increase Mather, D.D.; also, a history of the same war, by the Rev. Cotton Mather, D.D.; to which are added an introduction and notes, by Samuel G. Drake. Boston: Samuel G. Drake.
  • Mather, Increase (1900) [1675–1676]. “Diary”, March 1675–December 1676: Together with extracts from another diary by him, 1674–1687 /With introductions and notes, by Samuel A. Green. Cambridge, Massachusetts: J. Wilson.
  • Rowlandson, Mary (1997). The Sovereignty and Goodness of God: with Related Documents. Bedford: St. Martin’s Press.
  • Rowlandson, Mary (1682). The Narrative of the Captivity and the Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson.
  • Randolph, Edward (1675). Description of King Philip’s War.

Secondary sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to King Philip’s War.
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Categories

On the eve of King Philip’s War, about 80,000 colonists lived in more than 100 New England towns. Cultural differences, shifting settler alliances with various native groups, and the rapid growth of settlements made tensions rise, and tit-for-tat reprisals in June 1675 led to war between New England colonists and their Native American neighbors. During the war, more than half of all New England towns were raided and twelve were completely destroyed. Each community relied on its local militia for protection, and those areas lacking enough men or weaponry to fight had to be abandoned, albeit temporarily. In 1676 colonial forces killed Wampanoag leader “King Philip,” largely ending the bloodiest phase of the war. Ongoing battles in northern New England continued until 1678, and the protracted conflict left colonists vulnerable and Wampanoag and allied groups on the verge of collapse.

Media Gallery

After the untimely death of his brother, Metacomet (known as King Philip) became the chief of the Wampanoag tribe, which had once numbered in the thousands. On the eve of the war, much of the Wampanoag population had been wiped out by disease introduced from Europe and by war’s end only 400 remained. 1676. Credit: Kean Collection/Archive Photos/

Colonists lived in constant fear of Native American raids. During the war, more than 1,200 homes were burned and 8,000 cattle destroyed, leaving thousands hungry and homeless. About 1700, Connecticut. Credit: Interim Archives/Archive Photos/

Some local militias were poorly trained and didn’t stand a chance against the highly effective methods of Native American warriors. Even so, for every colonist death, four Native Americans paid the ultimate price.Credit: Library of Congress Photo Collection, 1840-2000/Ancestry.com

Colonists feared they were on the losing side. Defeats in 1676 threatened colonial strongholds across New England, including the city of Boston itself. 1635. Credit: Culture Club/Hulton Archive/

In Brookfield, Nipmuc and Wampanoag Indians burned every home in town and then held the settlers captive for three days until reinforcements arrived to free them. August 3, 1675, Brookfield, Massachusetts. Credit: Kean Collection/Archive Photos/

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